64 terms

1491-1607: Period 1

Chapter 1: A New World of Many Cultures

Terms in this set (...)

Woodland Mound Builders
a tribe of the Ohio River Valley that thrived and held large settlements after the installation of corn farming into their daily life during the first millennium A.D. This culture fell into decline most likely due to drought by about 1300 A.D.
Marco Polo
An Italian adventurer who returned to Europe in 1295 after a supposed temporary twenty-year stay in China. There is no factual evidence that he did indeed stay in China at all. Nonetheless, he told tales and wrote a book about his experiences as well as detailed descriptions of things he saw. European fascination of the New World and for a cheaper route to these wonders grew with his impact.
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)
a skilled Italian seafarer who persuaded the Spanish king and queen to lend him three small, completely manned ships for a voyage to the "Indies." Columbus accidentally discovered North and South America in 1492 and initiated the Colombian Exchange.
Hernán Cortés
a Spanish explorer and conquistador who set sail from Cuba in 1519 with sixteen horses, several hundred men, and eleven ships in an effort to gain access to the Aztecs' gold in Mexico. On the island, Cozumel, off the Yucatán peninsula, he rescued a Spanish castaway who had been enslaved by the Mayan-speaking Indians. Not long after, he took in female Indian slave, Malinche, who knew both Mayan and Nahuatl (language of the powerful Aztec rulers). Near present day Vera Cruz, Cortés made his final landfall. With the help of his interpreters, he learned of issues within the Aztec empire among the peoples from whom were demanded tribute by the Aztecs and of tales of gold stored in the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán. With a gathered force of some twenty thousand Indian allies, he marched on Tenochtitlán. Cortés turned away welcoming gifts from the Aztec chieftain and asked directly for passage into the capital and gold. Thinking the conquistador was Quetzalcoatl, a god whose return from the eastern sea was predicted in Aztec legends, the chieftain granted passage to the incredible city that couldn't compare to any European one on the standards of beauty or architecture. At first, the chieftain expressed hospitality to Cortés but soon, the conquistador's greedy hunger for gold grew too large to bear. The Aztecs attempted to drive him and his men out on June 30, 1520 but, Cortés laid siege on the city and it capitulated on August 13, 1521 as a result of disease and the conquistador's wrath. (Cortés intermarried with surviving Indians, creating a unique culture of mestizos)
Montezuma II
the Aztec chieftain at the time of Cortés's conquest of Tenochtitlán.
Ferdinand Magellan
a Spanish conquistador who left Spanish port in 1519 with five small ships. After sailing through a storm-ridden area off the tip of South America, he was murdered by natives of the Philippines. His one remaining ship washed up on the shores of Spain in 1522, completing the first circumnavigation around the globe.
Vasco Balboa
credited with the discovery of the Pacific Ocean, Balboa supposedly stepped into the sea off of Panama in 1513 and claimed all land touched by that sea for his monarchy
Francisco Pizarro
this conquistador defeated the Incas of Peru and confiscated their precious metals such as silver. This theft initially sparked the desire for precious metals in Europe.
Juan Ponce de León
a Spanish conquistador who explored Florida in search of gold in 1513 and 1521, initially thinking it was an island. An Indian arrow wound was his cause of death. (Associated with the Fountain of Youth Legend)
Henry Hudson
an English explorer employed by the Dutch East India Company who ignored orders to sail northeast and ventured into Delaware Bay and New York Bay in 1609. He eventually reached the Hudson River, hoping he had found a shortcut through the continent. Instead, he filed a Dutch claim to territory rich in natural resources such as timber and water.
Jacques Cartier
a Frenchman who traveled to the New World in around 1534 and journeyed hundreds of miles up the St. Lawrence River as part of a movement of other countries trying to scope out and colonize the New World.
Bartolome de Las Casas
a forward-thinking Dominican friar who in 1542 wrote, "The Destruction of the Indies" in which he expresses disfavor of the treatment of Native Americans and speaks out against Spanish policies in the New World. He was exceptionally mortified by the monstrous death toll of Indians after the spread of European disease in the New World.
an ancient Native American tribe that inhabited the deserts of the Southwest and were positively affected as a society by the incorporation of corn planting into their ways of life during the first millennium A.D. The installment of maize-based agriculture allowed the tribe to sustain a large, united settlement. The Anasazi people built a pueblo of more than 600 interconnected rooms at Chaco Canyon in present-day New Mexico. This culture fell into decline most likely due to drought by about 1300 A.D.
an ancient Native American tribe of the lower Midwest that benefitted similarly to the Anasazi people at around the same time with the addition of sophisticated maize farming to their civilization. The Mississippian settlement at Cahokia, near what is now East St. Louis, once sustained up to twenty-five thousand people. This culture fell into decline most likely due to drought by about 1300 A.D.
an ancient Native American tribe of Peru that developed an extremely sophisticated nation-state through the outspread horticulture of maize, sustaining a considerably large population. The Incas also built cities without the use of modern tools, adapted commerce, and Incan mathematicians made unbelievably accurate astronomical observations without sufficient means.
an ancient Native American tribe of Mexico that similarly to the Incas created a prosperous nation-state based of the farming of corn. All achievements correspond to the Incas with the exception of strict religious practices. The Aztecs routinely offered human sacrifices in order to please various gods or for ceremonial purposes.
an ancient Native American tribe of Central America with accomplishments vey similar to the two tribes above. The only exception is that the Mayans did not form a nation-state but were a flourishing civilization nonetheless.
Pueblo - an ancient Native American tribe that inhabited the Rio Grande Valley in the present-day American Southwest. The cultivation of maize was adapted by the Pueblo people in around 1200 B.C. This tribe developed water irrigation systems to water their corn.
indigenous to the present-day flatheads of Montana, Louis and Clark were exposed to and took observations of this unique tribe. These peoples participated in a skull-molding practice that flattened their foreheads, causing their heads to take the shape of a cone-like figure; this inspired the two explorers to call these Indians "Flatheads."
an Indian tribe well known for their long houses (building block of Iroquois society; long, wooden structure with architectural accommodations that could house large, extended family members of the woman's side), military league with other Indians*, and matrilinear roles. Although men held total domination in this society, they own their positions of prominence to their mother's families (all blood lines in female side, etc.)
Iroquois Confederation
a military alliance supposedly founded in the late 1500s between the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas that ended generations of warfare among the tribes and made them one universal superpower in both territorial supremacy and the fur trade
since this tribe resided farther inland in the Great Lakes area, they were less effected by European contact than other tribes by the eastern seaboard and became a regional superpower. They increased their population by absorbing smaller surrounding tribes and could easily defend themselves from and were feared by European forces until mass numbers of colonists arrived
Mission System
With word of Coronado's expedition of the 1540s in Mexico, conquistadors were influenced to continue moving northward to spread Christianity and conquer land. A large group of conquistadors led by Don Juan de Oñate traveled through the Sonora Desert of Mexico to the Rio Grande Valley in 1598. These Spaniards declared the area to be the Province of New Mexico in 1609 and founded its capital, Santa Fe in 1610. The settlers in New Mexico were not much interested in the natural resources in the province but found value in the many surrounding Indian peoples they could convert to Christianity. Converting the Pueblo people in New Mexico to the Christian Religion took nearly fifty years as the missionaries' efforts to suppress native religion was not easily taken. With French colonies growing in the north, the Spanish would continue to establish missionaries and settlements northward.
Small pox
an Old World disease that swept through defenseless Indian immune systems and ended up slaughtering gargantuan numbers of natives.
After the introduction of livestock by Columbus in 1493, horses spread throughout the country as far as Canada in less than two centuries. Indians like the Apaches, Sioux, and Blackfoot adopted the horse and became mobilized, hunting societies that fed off of buffalo in the Great Plains.
sugar formed the foundation of the West Indian economy. The mass production of this crop in the West Indies inspired the foundation for plantation planting in the New World as well as the necessity and mass importation of slaves.
these precious metals were the main attractive of conquistadors to Central and South America were these ores could be mined. (These metals were also stolen from the Incas and Aztecs; Incas for silver, Aztecs for gold)
a tool used in navigation that measures the angle between two objects.
a Spanish conquer or adventurer in the Americas.
Indian corn developed from wild grass by hunter-gatherers in the highland of Mexico in 5000 B.C. The growing of maize became the Native Americans' staff of life, foundation of the complex and centralized Aztec and Incan nation-states, as well as transformed nomadic hunters into settled agricultural villagers everywhere it was planted.
a small ship with a high deck and three triangular sails developed by Portuguese mariners in about 1450 to overcome obstacles when sailing home to Europe from Asia.
an era lasting from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century marking the revival of widespread positive spirit, exploration of the New World (mariner's compass was utilized), art, literature, learning in Europe (printing presses, introduced around 1450, allowed for the spread of scientific knowledge), and the transition from the medieval to the modern world
institution that allowed the Spanish government to "commend" or give, Indians to certain colonists as slaves in return fro the promise to try to convert them to christianity (were forced to perform unpaid service under the permanent, although not legally valid, ownership and control of their masters)
Black Legend
a myth that held that the Spanish conquerers of the New World purely tortured and murdered the Indians as a religious sacrifice to Jesus, stole their gold, purposefully infected them with smallpox for malicious intent, and left little but suffering behind.
a person of mixed Native American and European descent.
changing something so that it has more different kinds of people or things
Caste System
a system of social ranking, in this case, the level of dominance in society (whites, slaves, Indians, etc.)
Spanish practice of securing an adequate and cheap labor supply (encomienda system)
defeating/gaining control of someone or something through the use of force
the state of existing or acting separately from others. : the power or right of a country, group, etc., to govern itself
Columbian Exchange
The Colombian Exchange was an economic explosion of sorts of international commerce (would later be called "globalization") after Columbus' discovery of the Americas. The exchange altered Europe's trade and imports. From the New World, Europe imported gold, silver, corn, potatoes, pineapples, tomatoes, tobacco, beans, vanilla, chocolate, and indirectly, syphilis. Due to Europe's new influence, North America changed through the imports of Europe and Africa. From these two continents, North American natives gained wheat, sugar (seeds), rice, coffee, horses, cows, pigs, slave labor, and indirectly, smallpox, measles, bubonic plague, influenza, typhus, diphtheria, and scarlet fever. Africa was impacted by this exchange due to the increased demand to farm newly discovered crops between North America and Europe. Native Africans were stolen in the slave trade in gross amounts in order to be used for labor in the recently developed sugar cane fields in Hispaniola. In the exchange, South America, specifically Peru was reaped for gold and silver ore. The illnesses from the Old World ended up slaughtering up to as many as ninety percent of the Native Americans in the centuries after Columbus arrived.
an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are largely or entirely privately owned and operated for profit
Motives for European Exploration
-Crusades > by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.
-Renaissance > curiosity about other lands and peoples.
-Reformation > refugees & missionaries.
-Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.
-Technological advances.
-Fame and fortune.
The direct causes of exploration; 3 G's
~Political: Become a world power through gaining wealth and land. (GLORY)
~Economic: Search for new trade routes with direct access to Asian/African luxury goods would enrich individuals and their nations (GOLD)
~Religious: spread Christianity and weaken Middle Eastern Muslims. (GOD)
The Spanish were the first to pursue colonization. They began colonizing the Caribbean and eventually Central and South America. What were the most important Spanish conquests in these new americas?
The conquest of the Aztecs by Cortés in 1521 and the Incas by Pizzaro 1531
First permanent colony in what will become the United Sates founded by Spain.
St. Augustine (Florida) founded in 1565 to protect Spanich treasure fleets
Who were some explorers who sailed for Spain?
Columbus, an Italian who landed in the "West Indies" in 1492, and Magellan, a Portuguese sailor who was the first to technically circle the globe in 1522
Who were some explorers sailing from Hispaniola?
De Leon - colonist of Hispaniola - Established colony at Puerto Rico - Sailed north looking for Fountain of Youth - Discovered Florida - 1508
Balboa - colonist of Hispaniola - Established settlement in Panama - 1st European to see Pacific Ocean - 1513
de Coronado - Spain - Explored north from Mexico; up Colorado River; saw Grand Canyon -1540
de Soto - Spain - Explored Florida into Carolina's and west to the Mississippi River - 1541
Who was an explorer sailing for both Spain and Portugal?
Vespucci - Italian sailing for both Spain and Portugal - Sailed to the America's - Amerigo is his first name (where we get "America") - 1501
What did the Spanish empire consist of by the 1600's?
part of North America
Central America
Caribbean Islands
Much of South America.
Father Bartolomé de Las Casas
Believed Native Americans had been treated harshly by the Spanish.
Indians could be educated and converted to Christianized.
Believed Indian culture was advanced as European but in different ways.
-New laws in 1542
Describe some aspects of the encomienda system
1)Conquistador controlled Indian populations
Required Indians to pay tribute from their lands
Indians often rendered personal services as well.
2) In return the conquistador was obligated to
protect his wards
instruct them in the Christian faith
defend their right to use the to live off the land
3) Encomienda system eventually decimated Indian population.
4) The King prevented the encomienda with the New Laws (1542) supported by de Las Casas, the system gradually died out.
What were the Portuguese first to do?
The first to begin searching for an all water route to Asia (Prince Henry the Navigator 1450's)
What area of South America did Portugal colonize?
Area that would become Brazil through the Treaty of Tordesillas 1434
Give some explorers sailing for Portugal
Prince Henry the Navigator - Portugal - Funded Exploration down coast of Africa - 1419-1460
Dias - Portugal - Rounded the Cape of Good Hope - 1488
da Gama - Portugal - Opened trade with India - Placed Portugal in position to dominate trade with India - 1498
Cabral - Portugal - Claimed present day Brazil for Portugal - 1500
Where did the French settle?
Quebec 1608
Montreal 1642
& what would become Canada
What did the French develop at the start of colonization of the new world?
A fur trade
Give some explorers sailing for France
Cartier - France - Reached St. Lawrence River - Claimed Eastern Canada for France - 1535

Samuel de Champlain - France - "Father of New France" - Established Quebec (the 1st permanent French colony in N. America) - Established settlements and explored Maine, Montreal & Nova Scotia - 1608
Where did the Dutch settle?
-Found Albany (New York, 1614) on Hudson River
-New Netherlands (becomes New York) is an extension of the Dutch global trade system
What relationship did the Dutch and French have with the local Indians?
The Ducth and French formed alliances with Native Americans and increased warfare
Who was an explorer who sailed for the Netherlands?
Henry Hudson - English sailing for the Dutch - Searching for Northwest Passage - Claimed Hudson River - Settlers established New Netherlands (New York) - 1609
Once the New World is discovered, the Big 4 four European countries begin competing for control of North America and the world...
What did this power struggle ultimately lead to?
Several Wars
Give some effects from European exploration 1400 to 1600
-Europeans reach and settle Americas
-Expanded knowledge of world geography
-Growth of trade, mercantilism and capitalism
-Indian conflicts over land and impact of disease on Indian populations
-Introduction of the institution of slavery
-Columbian Exchange
List some goods involved in the Columbian exchange, first from the New World, then from Europe, and finally from Africa

- Many diseases