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Chapter 3

Heart LO
T or F: All arteries carry de-oxygenated blood.
T or F: Phase one of the heart takes blood from the lungs to the heart and then back to the heart.
You are located in your foot. Travel to and through the right side of your heart, and pick up oxygen.
Foot, Vein, Inferior Vena Cava, Right Atrium, Tricuspid Valve, Right Ventricle, Pulmonary Valve, Pulmonary Artery, Lungs
4 functions of the circulatory system
Carries little oxygen away from cells, Carries needed substances to cells, fights diseases, Takes away wastes
List the materials the CVS will deliver to the body.
Glucose and Oxygen
What waste is removed by the CVS? Where is this waste removed from the body?
Carbon-dioxide. Lungs
Define "heart"
A hollow muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body
Where is your heart located?
Behind the sternum in the ribs
How is the heart protected?
The sternum and ribs form a cage around the heart protecting it from damage
What seperates the right side of your heart from the left side?
The two upper chambers of your heart are called
Atriums, auricles, or atria
Whats the difference between these two chambers?
The right atrium has oxygen poor blood and the left atrium has oxygen rich blood
Where does the blood come from in the upper right chamber? What blood vessels put blood into these chambers?
Upper Body. Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava
The lower right/left chambers are called
Right ventricle, Left ventricle
Whats the difference between the lower chambers?
The right ventricle has oxygen poor blood, left ventricle has oxygen rich blood. The left ventricle puts more force than the right ventricle because it pumps blood through the body.
What is the tip of your heart called?
group of heart cells that sends out signals that make the heart muscle contract.
blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
where substances are exchanged between body and blood cells
blood vessel that carries blood to the heart
Where do blood vessels run?
All the tissues of our body
How does the blood vessel size range?
Width of thumb to hair
How many times can our blood vessels stretch around the earth?
In what order do blood vessels go in?
Artery, Arteriole, Capillary, Venoule, Vein
T or F: Blood enters the heart through the atria, auricle, or atrium
T or F: All capillaries have in them oxygenated blood
Why is the left side of the heart weaker than the right side?
It isnt
Coronary Arteries
1st branches of Aorta
Inner artery layer
smooth epithelial tissue
Middle artery layer
mostly muscle tissue
Outer artery layer
flexible connective tissue
What causes your pulse?
Expansion and Relaxation of artery wall
What artery layer acts as an control gate?
muscle layer. It relaxes to organs that need a lot of blood and contracts to organs that need little
How thick are capillaries?
One cell
Where are capillaries located?
Around every cell in the body
What happens to the oxygen level as it flows down the arteries in the body.
It lowers
Why should you not exercise vigorously shortly after eating?
After you eat, your digestive system needs more blood. If you exercise vigorously, more blood flows to the skeletal muscles, which means your food may not be digested properly.
Name the three factors that enable flodd to return to your heart?
Contraction of skeletal muscles, Larger veins have valves, Breathing pressure
T or F: Veins are larger than arteries
What is blood pressure?
The force exerted in a specific area
What causes bp?
force of ventricles contracting
Why is blood pressure lower in leg veins than the aorta?
Blood pressure near the heart is highest
What instruments measure bp? How is it measured? How is it expressed?
sphygmomonameter and stethoscope. A cuff is wrapped around the upper arm air is pumped until blood flow in the artery is cut off then releases listens to the pulse and records two numbers. In mm as a fraction a healthy bp is 120/80 or lower.
List two diseases of the CVS
atherosclerosis and hypertension
a condition in which an artery wall thickens as the result of the build up of fatty materials
Heart attack
when blood flow to the heart muscle is blocked
What causes a heart attack
artherosclerosis in the coronary arteries
High-blood pressure
What are the effects of hypertension?
makes heart work harder to pump blood, damages the walls of blood vessels
Why is hypertension called the silent killer?
There are no obvious symptoms
white stuff on a cut
3 ways to maintain CV health
Exercise regularly, eat a balanced diet low in saturated/trans fat, sodium, and cholesterol, and avoid smoking
Foods that are high in cholesterol
Red meat, Eggs, Cheese