1800-1848: Period 4, Part III
Chapter 9: Sectionalism, 1820-1860
Terms in this set (36)
The time period before the Civil War during which there were many reforms, including the establishment of free (tax-supported) public schools, improving the treatment of the mentally ill, controlling/abolishing the sale of alcohol, winning equal legal/political rights for women, and abolishing slavery.
Second Great Awakening
This revival of religious spirit increased public awareness of the moral outrages perpetuated by slavery and contributed to the growth of the Abolitionist movement
A new era of religious leaders who preached and wrote books denoucing the evils of popular entertainment and alcohol
Church of Latter-Day Saints
Mormon; key beliefs: pray for dead, polygamy; gains many poor followers, also gains opposition; end up in Salt Lake City
Founded Mormonism in New York and his announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
A Mormon leader that led his oppressed followers to Utah in 1846. Under Young's management, his Mormon community became a prosperous frontier theocracy and a cooperative commonwealth. He became the territorial governor in 1850. Unable to control the hierarchy of Young, Washington sent a federal army in 1857 against the harassing Mormons.
A movement in response to the cold rationality of the Enlightenment that stressed poetic, religious, and visionary human experience
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline
Promoted individualism and prompted humanitarian reforms
Emerson and Thoreau
Groups of people who tried to form a perfect society rather than try to fix the present one
A utopian settlement in Indiana started by Robert Owen that lasted for 3 years. It had 1,000 settlers, but a lack of authority caused it to break up.
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley
A leading utopian socialist who desired small communal societies in which men and women cooperated in agriculture and industry, abolishing private property and monogamous marriage. Inspired Brook Farm
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. He used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
Hudson River School
A group of artists led by Thomas Cole, who painted landscapes emphasizing America's natural beauty
America's first coherent school of art
Author, diplomat, wrote The Sketch Book, which included "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," the first American to be recognized in England (and elsewhere) as a writer
James Fenimore Cooper
American novelist who is best remembered for his novels of frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans (1826)
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption
Reformers proposed setting up new public institutions such as state-supported prisons, mental hospitals, and poorhouses; hope was that the inmates of these institutions would be cured of their antisocial behavior by being treated to a disciplined pattern of life in some rural setting
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S.
She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill.
She served as the Superintendent of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education
Sarah & Angelina Grimke
One of the first women to publicly support abolition and women's suffrage
Famous quote: "I ask no favors for my sex. I surrender not our claim to equality. All I ask of our brethren is that they will take their feet off our necks"
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Seneca Falls Convention 1848
Organized and led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, this convention called for women's rights in the following areas:
- The right to retain property after marriage
- Equal educational opportunities
- Divorce and child custody rights
Declaration of Sentiments and resolutions
Issued by the Seneca Falls Convention, it demanded greater rights for women
"We hold these truths to be self evident: that all men and women are created equal"
Women's movement during Antebellum period
Led by middle-class women, this movement promoted a broad-based platform fo legal & educational rights - hosted conventions in Northeast & Midwest but not South → had close links with antislavery and temperance movements
- Women's right to vote
- Abolition of slavery
- Passage of temperance laws
- Right of married women to own property
Susan B. Anthony
An early leader of the women's suffrage movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stnaton in 1869.
American Colonization Society
Goal was to return freed slaves to Africa so that America could be freed from influence of slavery
Leaders of this group comprised of middle-class men and women
American Antislavery Society
Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document.
A movement to end slavery
William Lloyd Garrison
Issued the first call for the "immediate and uncompensated emancipation of the slaves"
Prominent black abolitions who wrote an autobiography that exposed Americans to the horrors and inhumanity of slavery
Also championed equal rights for women and Native Americans
Also championed equal rights for women and Native Americans
Founded Abolitionist newspaper The North Star
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
American abolitionist and feminist. Born into slavery, she escaped in 1827 and became a leading preacher against slavery and for the rights of women
Free African Americans
These factors contributed to the widening definition of freedom:
1. Gradual emancipation laws of individual states
2. Manumission granted for Revolutionary War service
3. Manumission granted by slaveholders' wills
4. Increase in African-American population
The Marshall Court 1801-1835
John Marshall believed that the United States would be best served by concentrating power in a strong central government
Under Chief Justice John Marshall, Supreme Court decisions tended to promote business enterprise
Under his leadership, the Supreme Court upheld the supremacy of federal legislation over state legislation
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1920-1939: The Politics of Boom & Bust (Ch 31) & The Great Depression & New Deal (Ch 32)
1920-1929: American Life in the "Roaring Twenties" (Ch 30)
Pre-Columbian Native Cultural Regions
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THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
1800-1848: Period 4, Part IV
1800-1848: Period 4, Part V
1800-1848: Period 4, Part I
1800-1848: Period 4, Part II