The alternative approaches to analysis discussed in this chapter tend to analyze films as _____________ while considering the influence of ____________ on the movies.
cultural artifacts; popular culture
In movies, meaning is often absorbed intuitively. What are some techniques that contribute to a movie having this "invisible meaning?"
fade-in/fade-out, low-angle shot, cutting on action
A low-angle shot may present a character as __________, __________, or ___________ by filming the subject from a low angle.
strong; noble; threatening
Though it is difficult to provide a concrete and straightforward definition of what a movie is, this chapter offers several characteristics that help define a movie. Which of the following statements is NOT one of these characteristics?
Movies are relatively inflexible in their means of expression since they unfold linearly due to the nature of film stock
This chapter's analysis of the waiting-room sequence in Juno describes Juno turning her head in search of the source of a particular sound. At this moment, the camera adjusts to reveal a mother drumming her fingernails on a clipboard. This shot is an example of _______________.
point of view
The 10-second duration of the opening shot in the waiting-room sequence is ___________ and _____________.
relatively long; establishes a relaxed mood
The formal analysis of the editing in the waiting-room sequence from Juno suggests that editing:
often establishes patterns and rhythms that may provide dramatic impact when broken.
What is implicit meaning?
meaning that lies below the surface of a movie's story and presentation
The fade-in/fade-out is a filmmaking technique that ________________.
indicates a passage of time.
Which of the following statements best characterizes this chapter's (chapter 1) treatment of viewer expectations?
Our experience of any given film is affected by how that film manipulates expectations.
What is formal analysis?
an analytical approach concerned with the means by which a subject is expressed
In the waiting-room sequence from Juno analyzed in this chapter, what happens when the opening shot dollies in?
The camera moves slowly toward Juno increasing her visual significance.
How is editing defined in this chapter?
the joining together of shots to control what the viewer sees in a movie and how that viewer sees it
Which of the following statements about explicit meaning is NOT true?
Interpreting a film's message or "point" will reveal its explicit meaning.
A shot is ______________ that allows the viewer's perspective to _____________ within a given composition.
an unbroken span of action; shift
The protagonist in Juno displays traits we often associate with _________, who by the end of the film____________ the institution she scorns.
a rogue hero; upholds
The following statement describing Juno is an example of implicit meaning (True or False): "Juno presents a teenager faced with a difficult decision who makes a bold leap toward adulthood but, in doing so, discovers that the world of adults is no less uncertain or overwhelming than adolescence."
The theme (or motif) of the empty chair in Juno frames the story by appearing at the beginning and the ending of the film. The meaning of the empty chair _____________.
transforms along with the protagonist
Which of the following statements does NOT characterize cultural invisibility:
It is a way to unconsciously challenge viewers' shared belief systems.
The designations "film," "movie," and "cinema" carry different connotations. Though this textbook uses all three terms, it favors the term _____________ because___________.
movie; motion is the essence of the medium
Cutting on action is a common editing technique that hides the shift from one shot to the next by ______________.
ending the first shot in the middle of a continuing action and starting the next shot at some point further along in the same action
In most commercial films, certain viewer expectations are generally met. Which of the following is NOT one of these common expectations?
an open-ended resolution
True or False: Movies are similar to stage plays since they generally provide the viewer with a single uninterrupted wide-angle view of onscreen action.
Describe cinematic language?
techniques and concepts filmmakers use to connect viewers to a film that otherwise may conceal the means of storytelling.
This chapter suggests that Juno is one of many popular films that deal with the timely issue of "illegitimate" pregnancy. An analysis that compares Juno with other films such as Knocked Up or Waitress is an example of _____________ analysis.
This chapter analyzes two scenes from The Grapes of Wrath that illustrate how light may be a formal element used to create mood, reveal character, or convey meaning. What two sources of light does the analysis suggest carry significant meaning in these scenes?
a candle, the sun
Cinematic language combines various elements such as lighting, movement, sound, and camera effects into single _______________ that create meaning analogous to a sentence.
Viewers identify with _______________ as filmmakers use ____________ to make meaning.
the lens; the camera
How does critical flicker fusion help explain why early films were called flicks?
Projectors ran at speeds too slow to sustain the illusion of continuous light.
A movie is verisimilar if it ______________.
has the appearance of truth
Between 1895 and 1905, French filmmakers Auguste and Louis Lumière and Georges Méliès established two basic directions cinema would follow. The Lumière brothers are associated with __________ and Georges Méliès is associated with _________.
In Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho, what is the MacGuffin?
Critical flicker fusion is the process by which the human brain retains an image for a fraction of a second longer than the eye records it (True or False).
False; Persistence of vision is the process by which the human brain retains an image for a fraction of a second longer than the eye records it
The process by which an agent, a structure, or other formal element transfers something from one place to another is called _______________.
What is a MacGuffin?
something of vital importance to the characters in a film that turns out to be less significant to the overall narrative than first expected
Which of the following is NOT one of the three fundamental principles of film form?
Movies are captured, cut, and projected on a celluloid film strip.
The conventions that make up cinematic language are flexible. (True or False)
What are three techniques filmmakers can use to manipulate time?
slow motion, freeze frame, spilt screen
What is the difference between light and lighting?
Lighting is responsible for effects such as texture, depth, and mood, while light is responsible for creating the image we see on screen.
In Way Down East, ____________ creates the illusion that the characters will perish by going over Niagara Falls.
How does the scene from The Gold Rush analyzed in this chapter manipulate space?
The scene creates the illusion that the space inside the cabin and the space outside the cabin form a complete space.
The interaction between two optical and perceptual phenomena makes moving pictures possible. The persistence of vision provides the illusion of ______________, while the phi phenomenon provides the illusion of ____________.
Addressing the relationship between form and expectations, the chapter describes screenwriters who organize a film's structure around ____________.
the viewer's desire to learn the answers to questions posed by story elements
Antirealism is less representational than realism (True or False).
Form describes _____________, while content describes _____________.
the means of expression; the subject of a movie
Realism is concerned with ______________ and ______________.
representation; the actual
What is a shot/reverse-shot sequence?
a sequence that cuts back and forth between two characters interacting
Which of the following statements about verisimilitude is NOT true?
A film considered verisimilar in one time period will remain verisimilar for later periods.
Which of the following statements about form and content is NOT true? a) The relationship between form and content is a central concern of all art. b) Form can alter content. c) Form and content relate to a film's formal system not its story. d) Form and content are not separate entities.
Form and content relate to a film's formal system not its story.
A movie is a coordinated synthesis of performance, composition, sound, and editing that creates meaning to tell a story. When we analyze this synthesis we are analyzing ___________.
a film's form
Hybrid films illustrate __________________.
the flexibility of film form by blurring boundaries of film categorization
Films may be categorized according to a variety of systems. The film industry catalogs movies according to all of the following EXCEPT __________________. a) how films are distributed b) how films are financed c) classifications standardized by the industry d) a film's MPAA rating
classifications standardized by the industry
Gangster films are characterized by _____________ and _____________.
exploring the American dream; an antihero
Experimental films frequently reflect the creative vision of a single artist. These films _________________.
invite individual interpretation
Animation films are _____________.
a different form of moviemaking but not necessarily a single type of movie
Integrated musicals __________________.
assimilate singing and dancing with spoken dramatic action in any given location
Which of the following help define a genre?
theme, setting, character types, story formulas, presentation, stars
Science fiction is an example of a genre that _____________.
typically has compassionate human protagonists
Which of the following statements about experimental film is NOT true?
Experimental films are a relatively recent phenomenon.
An actor who is "typecast" _____________.
is identified with a particular genre
Which of the following is NOT true of Westerns? a) Westerns use landscape as an important visual and thematic element. b) Westerns typically take place in the desert. c) Westerns typically include a conflict between civilization and wilderness. d) Westerns are a form of modern mythology.
Westerns typically take place in the desert.
Genre refers to the categorization of narrative films by the stories they tell and the ways they tell them. Which of the following statements is NOT true of genre? a) A genre label can allow us to predict with reasonable certainty what kind of movie to expect. b) A film's genre may be used to predict its financial success. c) Setting is often an important aspect of genre. d) The conventions of genre films are stable and do not evolve.
The conventions of genre films are stable and do not evolve.
Which of the following distinguishes narrative films from other kinds of movies?
Narrative films are directed toward fiction.
Generic transformation is _____________.
the process by which a genre is adapted to meet the expectations of a changing society
Narrative is often used to describe the way that cinematic stories are constructed and presented in order to engage, involve, or orient an audience. This understanding of narrative defines narrative as _________________.
a way of structuring fictional or fictionalized stories in films
In film noir, the protagonist is usually an antihero who ______________.
rarely pursues or achieves leadership status
Film noir has a distinct visual style that includes ____________, ___________, and ___________.
deep shadows; nighttime exterior scenes; elements composed diagonally in the frame
Direct cinema _______________ and _____________.
limits the use of narrators; allows the audience to observe events as they occur
Actors associated with Westerns frequently deliver ___________ performances by portraying ___________ characters.
Documentary films are often concerned with __________ and ____________.
recording reality; educating the viewer
In gangster films, the antagonists are often ____________ and ______________.
police officers; other gangsters
Films that employ causal minimalism are characterized by ___________.
What are the three major types of movies?
narrative, experimental, documentary
Which of the following is NOT one of the six American genres discussed in this chapter?
Nanook of the North, which presents people and place in a straightforward manner, is an example of _______________.
a factual documentary
The founding purpose of the persuasive documentary was to _____________.
address social injustice
The backstage musical _________________.
typically revolves around a young performer looking for a big break
Horror films are often characterized by _____________.
a protagonist who saves a community that rejects her
Documentary filmmaking, which uses actual people, places, and events as source material, is described by John Grierson as ______________.