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Scorebuilders NPTE Respiratory A&P review
Terms in this set (51)
Which ribs only attach to 1 vertebra?
1, 10, 11, 12
What are considered the principle muscles of inspiration?
External intercostals and diaphragm
What is the upper respiratory tract composed of?
nose, pharynx (nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngeopharynx), larynx
What is the purpose of the upper respiratory tract?
- gas conduits
- also humidify, cool or warm inspired air
- filter foreign matter before it can reach alveoli
What does the R main bronchus divide into?
Superior, middle and inferior lobar bronchi
What does the R Superior lobar bronchi divide into?
apical, anterior and posterior
What does the R Middle lobar bronchus divide into?
2 segmental bronchi: medial and lateral
What does the R inferior lobar bronchi divide into?
Superior, medial basal, anterior basal, lateral basal and posterior basal segmental bronchi
What does the L superior lobar bronchus divide into?
Superior division: anterior segmental and apicoposterior segmental
Inferior (lingular) division: superior segmental and inferior segmental
What does the L inferior lobar bronchus divide into?
Superior, lateral basal, posterior basal, and anteromedial basal segmental bronchi
What is the difference between visceral and parietal pleura of the lungs?
Visceral - pleura surrounding the surface of the lungs
Parietal - covering the inner surfaces of the chest wall, ribs, vertebra diaphragm and mediastinum
How is breathing control achieved?
by the integrated activity of the central respiratory canter in the brainstem and peripheral receptors in the lungs, airways, chest wall and blood vessels
- Respiratory center integrates the information transmitted from the central and peripheral chemo/mechanoreceptors in the chest wall to stimulate motor neurons that innervate the respiratory muscles
Anatomic dead space volume (VD)
The volume of air that occupies the non-respiratory conducting airways
Expiratory Reserve Volume
max volume of air that can be exhaled after a normal tidal exhalation.
What % of TLV is ERV?
Forced Expiration Volume (FEV)
maximal volume of air exhaled in a specific period of time: usually the 1st, 2nd and 3rd sec of a forced vital capacity maneuver
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)
The volume of air expired during a forced maximal expiration after a forced maximal inspiration.
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration
What is the formula for FRC?
ERV + RV
What % of total lung capacity is FRC?
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
max volume of air that can be inhaled after resting expiration (after normal tidal volume)
What % of TLC is IC?
What is the formula for inspiratory capacity?
IC = TV + IRV
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
max volume of air that can be inspired after normal tidal volume inspiration
What % of TLC is IRV?
Minute volume ventilation (VE)
the volume of air expired in one minute
What is the formula for VE?
TV x RR (respiratory rate)
Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR)
The maximum flow of air during the beginning of a forced expiratory maneuver
Residual Volume (RV)
volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of a maximal expiration
What % is RV of total lung volume?
Tidal Volume (TV)
total volume inspired and expired with each breath during quite breathing
What % of TLC is TV?
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
the volume of air in the lungs after a maximal inspiration; the sum of all lung volumes
What is the formula for TLC?
TLC = RV + VC
TLC = FRC + IC
T or F More O2 is is dissolved in the plasma than is bound to hemoglobin
F; more is bound to hemoglobin than is dissolved in the blood
What is PaO2?
The amount of oxygen dissolved in the plasma and is expressed in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).
- determines how much oxygen combines chemically with hemoglobin
Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)
• Collected to evaluate acid-base status (pH), ventilation (PaCO2), oxygenation of arterial blood (PaO2)
• Bicarbonate (HCO3-) is an important component of the chemical buffering system that keeps the blood from becoming too acidic or basic
What is a normal blood ph?
What is a normal PaCO2?
What is a normal PaO2?
80-100 (97mmHg at sea level)
What is a normal HCO3-?
What order are ABG results written in?
pH--> PaCO2--> PaO2 --> HCO3-
pH < 7.35 (elevated acidity)
pH > 7.45
normal level of CO2 in arterial blood
excessive carbon dioxide in the blood (PaCO2 > 45mmHg)
condition of deficient carbon dioxide (PaCO2 <35mmHg)
PaO2 40-59 mmHg
PaO2 < 40 mmHg
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