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Terms in this set (62)
- A series of steps taken to conduct accurate research.
- When we find that a researcher incorporates parts of several different theories into his or her work, this is described as using what?
- An organizing set of principles used to guide thinking and predict research outcomes.
- A set of ideas or principles about how something works is a ______.
An approach to research that capitalizes on the strengths of many different theories
The organizing framework of this book, which assumes that individuals exist within multiple complex systems of influence, from biological to cultural, all of which interact with each other to shape family functioning
An analysis of capitalist societies that claims the rich will always exploit the labor of the poor and eventually the poor will revolt to reap the fruits of their own labor; emphasizes the need for a communal way of life where all workers benefit equally from shared work
- Stems from Communist theory, which emphasizes maintaining the status quo of a society or family, with specific structures remaining in place to ensure the system works as it should, with specific people in power; each person plays a crucial role in keeping the family functioning as it always has.
- Which theoretical perspective is useful in helping to understand why a pattern of family interaction is maintained?
Family Systems Theory
A theoretical approach stemming from structural-functionalism, which examines role and power dynamics present in families, emphasizing that every individual exists within a complex relationship system, the whole being greater than the sum of the parts
Argues that conflict is a normal and natural part of family life, using conflicts to help relationships mature and grow through renegotiating power relationships
Social Exchange Theory
A theory arguing that people make a deliberate tally of costs and benefits during decision making and behaviors they perform in families
The idea that humans construct their own reality, and those constructions affect behaviors in families
A socially constructed concept referring to different colors of people thought to stem from diverse genetic lines in human history; in reality there are no true races of people
A broad umbrella term for the many theoretical perspectives espousing the equality of men and women, whereby feminist scholars examine women from their own perspective, often using qualitative research methods, without comparing women to men. This perspective often engenders social activism
A worldview that holds men and male perspectives as the norm by which women are measured and compared
Female Deficit Perspective
The traditional research approach that interpreted gender differences as due to female inferiority, instead of appreciating findings about women as normal in their own right
John Bowlby's theory stressing the importance of early caregiving relationships for shaping the way people process information as well as affecting their social and emotional adjustment in adulthood
Internal Working Model
An unconscious cognitive template shaped through interactions with early caregivers, which guides people's thinking and behavior in relationships
Immediate, direct influences on development (e.g., parents and peers)
Interactions between microsystems that provide a new level of influence on development, separate from the influence of individual microsystem effects
- Indirect influences on development, affecting people through their microsystems.
- In the bioecological model, the system of influences that with which you do not come into direct contact is the ______.
Large cultural and societal influences on development.
Time period effects on development
Doing a research study again to confirm that results are valid
- A concrete, testable statement employed in research studies.
- The first step in the scientific method is to ______.
The attempt to keep personal beliefs out of the research process
A concrete, extremely clear definition of research variables that allows other scientists to easily replicate the work
A definitive statement about one variable causing changes in another variable
A research method employing strict controls and random assignment of subjects; the only method that allows one to make causal statements
A research method that resembles real-life situations but is artificially manipulated in the lab
The variable that is manipulated in a research study
The variable that is measured at the end of a research study
A technique used in experiments whereby participants are assigned to groups in a random, versus systematic, manner; increases validity of conclusions made from results
The group of participants that receives the independent variable manipulation
The group of participants that does not receive the independent variable manipulation; can receive another similar manipulation if a no-treatment control group is also employed
A manipulation check to assess the participants on key variables before the experiment has taken place
A sample of participants that closely resembles the larger group to whom research results are meant to generalize
No-Treatment Control Group
A group of participants that receives no level of the independent variable manipulation
A study design that follows the same people over long periods of time
The rate at which participants leave a study through dropout, death, relocation, or refusal to participate
A study design where one or more groups of people are measured at one point in time
The degree to which research results can be applied to larger populations based on the sample results found in a study
A group comparison research design where groups are not randomly assigned but are naturally occurring
A study that examines links, associations, or relationships between variables but cannot assess causal influences due to a lack of experimental controls
- Data that occur in numerical form, as is found in questionnaires or surveys.
- ______ research refers to studies in which the phenomena being studied are expressed in terms of numbers.
Data that occur in narrative form, as is found in open-ended interviews
- A research study conducted on a group of people from their own perspective, often after the researcher lives within the society for a length of time; usually qualitative.
- A qualitative approach to research that involves documenting the lives and experiences of a population in depth is referred to as:
An "insider's" approach to research, looking at a topic from the perspective of the research participants
An "outsider's" approach to research, looking at a topic from the perspective of the researcher
Characteristics of the researchers or research setting that influence the behavior or thoughts of participants
The ability to use reason to find accurate information, to think logically and skeptically, and not be gullible to ideas that have no supporting evidence
A categorical grouping of people based on their cultural group membership, shared historical experiences, language, rituals, and food
The socially constructed aspects of what makes a person male or female
A person who is not clearly male or female and may have ambiguous genitalia
The sexual attraction one has toward people of a specific gender or genders
Viewing one's own ethnicity as normative and others' as deficient or foreign; privileging one ethnic group's perspective over that of others
Viewing heterosexual orientation as normative and others' orientation as deficient or foreign; privileging heterosexuality over other orientations
One's level of income or socioeconomic status
The idea that every person is affected by multiple identities stemming from his or her sex, gender, sexual orientation, race, religion, ethnicity, and social class
Social Constructivist Perspective
A family therapist who tries to help clients understand how each family member understands a situation or conflict is working from a:
The founder of attachment theory was ______.
Which researcher's studies of young monkeys showed that contact comfort was more significant than food in building attachments?
Touch, responsiveness, love, and warmth.
Attachment theory posits that the factors most important to human survival are:
The concept that individuals in families are affected by the interactions among gender, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, and social class is referred to as family systems theory.
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