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122 terms

skin diseases and disorders

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Acne
Condition characterized by chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands from retained secretions & Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) bacteria.
Albinism
Congential leukoderma or absence of melanin pigment of the body, including the hair, skin & eyes.
Anihidrosis
Condition characterized by a deficiency or lack of prespiration, due to the failure of the sweat glands. Can also be a result of fever or certain skin diseases.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Most common & least severe type of skin cancer; often characterized by light or pearly nodules. Can be easily removed.
Bromhidrosis
Condition characterized by foul-smelling prespiration caused by bacteria or yeast, usually noticable in the underarms or on the feet.
Bulla (plural: bullae)
Large blister containing a watery fluid; similar to a vesicle but larger.
Chloasma
Condition characterized by increased pigmentation on the skin in spots that are not elevated, such as a Liver spots.
Comedo (plural: comedones)
Non-inflamed hair follicle filled (buildup) with cells, keratin, sebum & other debris inside follicles. Worm like mass of hardened sebum in a hair follicle.
Crust
Dead cells that form over a wound or blemish while it is healing; an accumulation of sebum & pus, sometimes mixed with epidermal material, such as a scab.
Cyst
Closed, abnormaly developed sac containing fluid, semifluid or morbid (infection) matter, above or below the skin.
Dermatitis
Inflammatory condition of the skin.
Dermatitis Venenata
Condition characterized by an eruptive skin infection caused by contact with irritating substances such as chemicals or tints. Commonly known as contact dermatitis.
Eczema
Condition characterized by inflammatory painful itching disease of the skin, acute or chronic in nature, presenting many forms of dry or moist lesions.
Excoriation
Skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping.
Fissure
Crack in the skin that penatrates the epidermis, such as chapped hands or lips.
Herpes Simplex
Fever blister or cold sore; recurring viral infection.
Hyperhidrosis
Condition characterized by excessive sweating (perspiration) caused by heat, genetics, general body heat or general body weakness.
Keloid
Thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue (collagen). Genetically predisposed.
Keratoma
Acquired, superficial thickened patch of epidermis, caused by pressure or friction on the hands & feet, such as a callus or a corn
Lentigines (singular: lentigo)
Technical term for freckles. Small yellow to brown colored spots on skin exposed to sunlight & air.
Lesion
Mark on the skin, that may indicate an abnormality, injury or damage that changes the structure of tissues & organs.
Leukoderma
Condition characterized by light abnormal patches; caused by a burn or congenital disease that destroys the pigment-producing cells. Vitiligo & albinism are both this.
Macule (plural: maculae)
Spot or discoloration on the skin, such as a freckle.
Malignant Melanoma
Condition characterized by black or dark brown patches on the skin that may appear uneven in texture, jagged or raised. Most serious form of skin cancer.
Milia
Benign, keratin-filled cysts that can appear just under the epidermis & have no visible opening. Small whitish, pearl like masses in the epidermis due to the retention of sebum; such as whiteheads.
Miliaria Rubra
Acute inflammatory disorder of the sweat glands, characterized by the eruption of small red vesicles & accompanied by burning, itching skin from excess heat exposure, such as prickly heat.
Mole
Small, brownish spot or blemish on the skin, ranging in color from pale to tan to brown or bluish black.
Nevus (Naevus)
Small or large malformation of the skin due to abnormal pigmentation or dilated capillaries; such as birth mark.
Papule
Small circumscribed elevation on the skin that contains no fluid but may develop pus like into a pustule.
Psoriasis
Condition characterized by red patches, covered with silvery white scales usually found on the scalp, elbows, knees, chest & lower back, but rarely on the face. Is not contagious, but can spread by irritating the affected area.
Pustule
An inflamed papule with a white or yellow center, containing pus, a fluid consisting of white blood cells, bacteria & other debris produced from an infection, such as an inflamed pimple containing pus.
Rosacea
Condition characterized by chronic inflammation of the skin appearing primarily on the cheeks & nose, characterized by redness, dilation of the blood vessels & formation of papules & pustules. Vasodilation of the blood vessels makes it worse.
Scale
Any thin plate of epidermal flakes, dry or oily, such as abnormal or excessive dandruff or psoriasis.
Scar or Cicatrix
Light-colored, slightly raised mark on the skin formed after an injury or lesion of the skin has healed.
Seborreheic Dermatitis
Condition characterized by an inflammation of the sebaceous glands, accompanied by inflammation, dry or oily scaling or crusting, &/or itchiness, such as eczema. Mainly affects oily areas.
Sensitization
A greatly increased or exaggerated sensitivity to products.
Skin Tag
Small outgrowths or extensions of the skin that look like flaps.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Condition characterized by red, pink scaly papules or nodules. Sometimes open sores or crusty areas that do not heal & may bleed easily, found in all parts of the body. Type of skin cancer more serious than basal cell carcinoma;
Stain
Abnormal brown or wine-colored skin discoloration with a circular & irregular shape, such as a port wine stain (is a vascular type).
Steatoma
Sebaceous cyst or subcutaneous tumor filled with sebum, such as a wen.
Tan
Change in pigmentation of skin caused by exposure to the sun or ultraviolet rays.
Telangiectasias
Dilation of the surface blood vessels.
Tubercle
Abnormal rounded, solid lump above, within or under the skin; larger than papule.
Tumor
A large nodule; a swelling of abnormal cell mass resulting from excessive multiplication of cells, varying in size, shape & color.
Ucler
Open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus & loss of skin depth.
Verruca
Hypertrophy of the papillae & epidermis. Technical term for wart.
Vesicle
Small blister or sac containing clear fluid, lying within or just beneath the epidermis, such as poison ivy/oak.
Vitiligo
Condition characterized by milky white spots (leukoderma) or areas on the skin from a lack of pigment cells. An acquired condition (hereditary) & may be related to thyroid condition.
Wheal
An itchy swollen lesion that lasts only a few hours; caused by a blow, the bite of an insect, urticaria, the sting of a nettle or skin allergy, such as hives & mosquito bites.
Asteatosis
Condition characterized by dry, scaly skin due to a deficiency or absence of sebum, can be due to aging, body disorders, alkalies of harsh soaps or cold weather.
Seborrhea
Condition characterized by an abnormal increase of secretion from the sebaceous glands. Severe oiliness of the skin.
Acute
A rapid onset, severe symptoms, & a short course or duration.
Allergy
Reaction due to extreme sensitivity to certain foods, chemicals or other normally harmless substances.
Chronic
Long duration, usually mild but recurring.
Congenital Disease
Disease that exists at birth.
Contagious Disease
Disease that is communicable or transmittable by contact.
Contraindication
Any condition or disease that makes an indicated treatment or medication inadvisable.
Diagnosis
Determination of the nature of a disease from its symptoms.
Disease
Abnormal condition of all or part of the body, organ or mind that makes it incapable of carrying on normal function.
Epidemic
Appearance of a disease that simultaneously attacks a large number of persons living in a particular locality.
Etiology
Study of the causes of disease & their mode of operation.
Infectious Disease
Disease cause by pathogenic microorganisms or viruses that are easily spread.
Inflammation
Condition of some part of the body as a protective response to injury, irritation, or infection, characterized by redness, heat, pain & swelling.
Objective Symptoms
Symptoms that are visible, such as pimples, pustules or inflammation.
Occupational Disease
Illness resulting from conditions associated with employment, such as coming in contact with chemicals or tints .
Parasitic Disease
Disease cause by vegetable or animal parasite, such as pediculosis & ringworm.
Pathogenic Disease
Disease produced by disease- causing bacteria, such as staphylococcus & streptococcus (pus forming bacteria) or viruses.
Pathology
Sciences that investigates modifications of the functions & changes in structure caused by disease.
Prognosis
Foretelling of the probable course of a disease.
Seasonal Disease
Disease influence by the weather.
Subjective Symptoms
Symptoms that can be felt, such as itching, burning or pain.
Systemic Disease
Disease that effects the body generally, often due to under- or overfunctioning of the internal glands.
Venereal Disease
Contagious disease commonly acquired by contact with an infected person during sexual intercourse, characterized by sores & rashes on the skin.
Urticaria
An allergic reaction by the body's histamine productions (caused by the exposure to allergens). Medical term for hive.
Nodule
Tumors - (smaller) caused by fatty deposits or infections.
Primary Lesions
Characterized by flat, non-palpable changes in skin color - such as macules - or by elevations formed by fluid in a cavity, such as vesicles or pustules. Are in the early stages of development or change.
Secondary Lesions
Develops in later stages of disease.
Acne Excoriee
A disorder where a person purposely scrapes off acne lesions, causing scarring & discoloration.
Acne Simplex/Acne Vulgaris
Two other names for acne.
Open Comedones
When the sebum of the comedo is exposed to the environment, it oxidizes & turns black, such as blackheads.
Closed Comedones
When the follicle is closed & not exposed to the environment, comedones are a white or cream color, such as whiteheads.
Furuncle
Subcutaneous abscess filled with pus usually involving one hair follicle, such as a boil.
Carbuncle
Subcutaneous abscess filled with pus usually involving more than one hair follicle, such as a group of boils.
Sebaceous Hyperplasia
Benign lesions frequently seen in the oilier areas of the face. Over-growths of the sebaceous glands appear similar to open comedones - doughnut shaped.
Telangiectasia
Vascular lesions - capillaries that have been damaged & are now larger or distended blood vessels, such as in Couperose skin.
Atopic Dermatitis
Hereditary condition or inflamed rash characterized by dry sensitive skin & irritated, worsens in winter mostly found on neck face & folds of body, can be caused by allergies.
Contact Dermatitis
Inflammatory skin condition caused by contact with a substance or chemical, such as Dermatitis Venenata.
Edema
Swelling from a fluid imbalance in the cells or from a response.
Erythema
Redness caused by inflammation.
Folliculitis
Hair grows under the surface, instead of growing up & out of the follicle, causing a bacterial infection.
Pseudofolliculitis
Razor bumps without the pus or infection.
Pruitis
Medical term for itching.
Hyperpigmentation
An overproduction of pigment - sun exposure, acne medications & post inflammatory hyperpigmentation from skin damage. Overactivity of melanocytes.
Melasma
Term for hyperpigmentation. Pregnancy mask.
Hypopigmentation
Lack of pigment.
Hypertrophy
Abnormal growth of skin.; many are benign or harmless. Used to describe wasting away.
Hypertrophic
Used to describe thickening of a tissue.
Keratoses
An abnormally thick buildup of cells.
Hyperkeratosis
Thickening of the skin caused by a mass of keratinized cells, keratinocytes.
Actinic Keratosis
Pink or flesh colored precancerous lesions that feel sharp or rough are a result of sun damage and should be checked by a dermatologist.
Retention Hyperkeratosis
Hereditary condition characterized by dead skin cells that do not shed from the follicles as they do on normal skin. Excessive sebum production can overtax the sebaceous follicles & cause further cell buildup. Sebum mixed with cells in the follicles become comedones.
Conjunctivitis
Condition characterized by inflammation of membrane that lines the eyelids - very contagious, such as Pinkeye.
Herpes Simplex 1
Fever blisters or cold sores; recurring viral infection.
Herpes Simplex 2
Genital herpes.
Herpes Zoster
A painful skin condition from chickenpox, characterized by group of blisters that form a rash, such as Shingles.
Impetigo
Bacteria infection of the skin that often occurs in children; characterized by clusters of small blisters or crusty lesions filled with bacteria produces honey yellow-crusted lesions. Extremely contagious.
Tinea
Fungal infection that is characterized by red circular patches, blisters, such as ringworm.
Tinea Pedis
Athlete's foot.
Tinea Corporis
A fungal infection.
Tinea Vericolor
A fungal infection that inhibits melanin production, such as pityriasis versicolor.
Ostium
Term for opening of the follicle.
Sebaceous Filaments
Similar to open comedones, are mainly solidified impaction of oil without the cell matter. Also block the follicle & can cause an acne breakout. Often found in the nose.
Anaerobic
Lack of oxygen.
Propionbacteria Proliferation
When follicles are blocked with sebum & dead skin buildup, oxygen cannot reach the bottom of the follicle.
Androgens
Male hormones responsible for stimulation of the sebaceous glands to produce sebum.
Grade 1 Acne
Minor breakouts, some open comedones & closed comedones with an occasional papule or pustule.
Grade 2 Acne
Moderate acne with more closed comedones, more open comedones, with a few papules & pustules.
Grade 3 Acne
Moderately severe acne with many comedones red & inflamed papules & pustules with occasional cysts.
Grade 4 Acne
Most severe acne with numerous cysts with comedones, papules, pustules, & inflammation are present. Scar formation from tissue damage is common. Nodular cystic acne.
Candida Albicans
Caused by yeast infection; a type of fungus characterized by red, well-demarcated patches surrounded by white film found in folds.
Rhinophyma
More severe form of rosacea, affecting mostly the nose.
Polyp
Mushroom like growth extending from the surface of a mucous membrane.