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a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans
a gene or chromosomal mutation that influences the development of an organism in such a way that the organism cannot survive
the movement of a segment of DNA from one chromosome to another, which results in a change in the position of the segment; also the movement of soluble nutrients from one part of a plant to another
the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate during mitosis or meiosis II
a mutation in which a nucleotide or a codon in DNA is replaced with a different nucleotide
a mutation, such as the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a coding sequence, that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame
in genetics, an individual who has one copy of a recessive autosomal allele that causes disease in the homozygous condition
an inherited disease or disorder that is caused by a mutation in a gene or by a chromosomal defect
a character such as skin color that is influenced strongly by both genes and the environment
an autosomal trait that is influenced by the presence of male or female sex hormones
a rare hereditary disease of the brain characterized by involuntary movements of the limbs or face, decreasing mental abilites, and eventual death
a procedure used in fetal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus of the pregnant woman
chorionic villi sampling
a procedure in which the chorionic villi to are analyzed to diagnose fetal genotypes
the process of testing and informing potential parents about their genetic makeup and the likelihood that they will have offspring with genetic defects or hereditary diseases
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