the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). (Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram.)
the perception of a relationship where none exists
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next