1. July 12, 2013
2. July 27, 2013
3. August 12, 2013
4. August 27, 2013
Rationale: The accurate use of Nägele's rule requires that the woman have a regular 28-day menstrual cycle. Subtract 3 months from the first day of the last menstrual period, add 7 days, and then adjust the year as appropriate. In this case, the first day of the LMP was October 20, 2012. When you subtract 3 months, you get July 20, 2012. If you add 7 days, you get July 27, 2012. Add 1 year to this, and you get the estimated date of birth: July 27, 2013.
1. G = 3, T = 2, P = 0, A = 0, L = 1
2. G = 2, T = 1, P = 0, A = 0, L = 1
3. G = 1, T = 1, P = 1, A = 0, L = 1
4. G = 2, T = 0, P = 0, A = 0, L = 1
Rationale: Pregnancy outcomes can be described with the GTPAL acronym: G = gravidity (number of pregnancies); T = term births (number born after 37 weeks); P = preterm births (number born before 37 weeks' gestation); A = abortions/miscarriages (number of abortions/miscarriages); L = live births (number of live births or living children). Therefore, a woman who is pregnant with twins and who already has a child has a gravida of 2. Because the child was delivered at 38 weeks, the number of preterm births is 0, and the number of term births is 1. The number of abortions is 0, and the number of live births is 1.
3. Increased urine output
4. Depressed respirations
5. Extreme muscle weakness
6. Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes
Rationale: Magnesium sulfate is a central nervous system depressant, and it relaxes smooth muscle, including the uterus. It is used to stop preterm labor contractions, and it is used for preeclamptic clients to prevent seizures. Adverse effects include flushing, depressed respirations, depressed deep tendon reflexes, hypotension, extreme muscle weakness, decreased urine output, pulmonary edema, and elevated serum magnesium levels.
1. Visual disturbances
2. Rapid weight gain
3. Facial edema
4. Irregular, painless contractions
Rationale: Visual disturbances, rapid weight gain, and generalized or facial edema are warning signs in pregnancy. Braxton Hicks contractions are the normal, irregular, painless contractions of the uterus that may occur throughout the pregnancy. Additional warning signs in pregnancy include vaginal bleeding, premature rupture of the membranes, preterm uterine contractions that are normal and regular, change in or absence of fetal activity, severe headache, epigastric pain, persistent vomiting, abdominal pain, and signs of infection.