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AP EURO Chapter 21
Terms in this set (40)
The theory that government and social institutions are oppressive and unnecessary and that society should be based on voluntary cooperation among individuals.
Organized by manufacturers who sought to repeal the Corn Laws; wanted to abolish tariffs protecting the domestic price of grain. This would lower food prices, which would then allow lower wages at no real cost to workers. The price of British manufactured goods could also be lowered to make them more competitive globally.
Advocated utilitarianism, the greatest good for the greatest amount of people, to overcome the special interests of the privileged groups who prevented rational government through traditionalism.
Demanded an end to competition and expanding political power to the working class. The working class would then influence the government and economy to their, and society's, benefit, and by doing so, improve the quality of life.
The first large-scale European working class political movement. It sought political reforms that would favor the interests of skilled British workers in the 1830's and 1840's.
The theory that economies grow through free enterprise of individuals competing in a largely self-regulating marketplace with minimum government intervention.
Young, middle-class German who coauthored the Communist Manifesto with Marx and shared many of his ideals such as class conflict.
English Corn Laws
High prices for domestically produced grain through import duties on foreign grain.
Advocated phalanxes, or communities specialized in liberated living - such as improved working conditions and quality of life - with the goal of increasing productivity and efficiency.
Unsuccessful attempt to unify Germany in 1848. It intended to write a moderately liberal constitution for a unified Germany, but alienated conservatives, workers and liberals.
Frederick William IV
Prussian king, responded to liberal demands of unification by promising parliament, constitution, and united Germany as long as peace was upheld
Leader of the romantic Italian nationalist movement who conquered much of Italy with the intention of forming a republic, but instead accepted nationalist annexation to Piedmont.
Irish Potato Famine
Irish peasants with no land or small plots starved when the potato crop failed to yield a good harvest; resulted in emigration and rural flight to European cities.
Iron law of wages
Ricardo's concept that if wages increased, childbirth would increase; if child birth increased, then the workforce would increase; if the workforce increased, then wages decreased; if wages decreased, then childbirth would decrease; workforce would decrease, wages would then increase; repeat.
The French regime set up after the overthrow of the Bourbons in July 1830. Louis Philippe was the king.
The economic doctrine of minimal government intervention in the economy.
Conservative king of France who staged a royal coup d'etat which changed the French constitutional monarchy to the French Empire. Declared himself Emperor Napoleon III.
Rather liberal "king of the French" who abolished censorship, was anti-clerical, restored the tricolor revolutionary flag, supported the constitution, and cooperated with the legislature; July Monarchy.
These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines.
Magyar liberals who wanted their aristocratic liberties guaranteed against the central government of Vienna; also led to the proposed "Magyarzation" of other eastern European ethnic groups by means of nationalism to create an independent Hungarian state within the Hapsburg domains.
Leader of romantic republican nationalism throughout Europe, and opposed Austrian influence in the Italian peninsula. Also, he wished to establish a republic.
Asserted that the human population must be controlled or it could outgrow the food supply. Mentioned contraception in Christian-Catholic Europe as a means of population control.
A society in Indiana that focused on utopian socialism. It was started by Robert Owens but failed because everybody did not share their fair load of work.
Owen's utopian factory community in Scotland.
Believed that if humans were placed in the correct surroundings, they and their character could be improved; saw no conflict between a human industrial environment and making a profit; led to the unionization of workers.
An anarchist who attacked banking systems because they would not extend credit to the poor and small property owners so they could participate in enterprise. Mutualism- a system of small businesses. There would be peaceful cooperation and exchange of goods among these groups; therefore, government would be unnecessary.
Revolutions of 1848
Liberal and nationalistic revolutions that occurred throughout Europe, and instilled incredible change - but conservatism returned stronger than ever. French monarchy was overthrown and failed in Hungary, Italy, Germany, and Austria.
Interpreted Malthus' concept as the iron law of wages; supported employers in their reluctance to raise wages and provided strong support for the opposition to labor unions.
Believed efficient societies needed rational management by experts. Property, wealth, and enterprise were to handled by others, essentially not the owner.
Proponent of capitalism, free enterprise, laissez-faire economics, and individual initiative.
An economic theory that denied the free market could efficiently and fairly allocate wealth and resources as compared to an organized, collective group of expert individuals that managed wealth and resources to society.
The theory associated with Jeremy Bentham that the principle of utility, defined as the greatest good for the greatest amount of people, should be applied to the government, the economy, and the judicial system.
Early nineteenth century theories that sought to replace the existing capitalist structure and values with visionary solutions and ideal communities.
A free trade union established among the major German states in 1834.
A violent class struggle in France after the worker's revolt of 1848 which ultimately lead to the Second Republic
Karl Marx & Fredrich Engels
(Communist Manifesto): The two wrote for the Communist league. Marx established Marxism which was influenced by the class discrepancies where the proletariat would revolt and form a classless society. Engels promoted thesis, antithesis and synthesis upon which Marx forged his ideas.
The new working class that migrated toward cities as industrialization increased
advocated for a utopian society and various champions of which were: Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Robert Owen
Population will always be low, because of the constant need for resources
Iron law of wages suggested that wages would always tend to be low which justified those who did not advocate high wages
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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