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37 terms

Chapter 10: Language and Education

STUDY
PLAY
Language
A symbolic system in which a limited number of signals can be combined according to rules to produce an infinite number of messages
Phonemes
One of the basic unites of sound used in a particular spoken language.
Intonation
Variations in pitch, loudness, and timing when saying words or sentences
Word segmentation
In language development, the ability to break the stream of speech sounds into distinct words
Cooing
An early form of vocalization that involves repeating vowel-like sounds
Babbling
An early form of vocalization that appears between 4 and 6 months of age and involves repeating consonant-vowel combinations such as "baba" or "dadada"
Semantics
The aspect of language centering on meanings
Joint attention
The act of looking at the same object at the same time with someone else; a way in which infants share perceptual experiences with their caregivers
Holophrase
A single-word utterance used by an infant that represents an entire sentence's worth of meaning
Vocabulary spurt
A phenomenon occurring around 18 months of age when the pace of word learning quickens dramatically
Overextension
The young child's tendency to use a word to refer to a wider set of objects, actions, or events than adults do
Underextension
The young child's tendency to use general words to refer to a smaller set of objects, actions, or events than adults do
Telegraphic speech
Early sentences that consist primarily of content words and omit the less meaningful parts of speech such as articles, prepositions, pronouns, and auxiliary verbs
Syntax
Rules specifying how words can be combined to form meaningful sentences in a language
Functional grammar
An analysis of the semantic relations (meanings such as naming and locating) that children express in their earliest sentences
Morphology
Rules governing the formation of words from sounds (for example, rules forming plurals and past tenses)
Overregularization
The overgeneralization of observed grammatical rules to irregular cases to which the rules do not apply (for example, saying mouses rather than mice)
Transformational grammar
Rules of syntax that allow a person to transform declarative statements into questions, negatives, imperatives, and other kinds of sentences
Pragmatics
Rules specifying how language is to be used appropriately in different social contexts to achieve goals
Decontextualized language
Language that is not bound to the immediate conversational context and that is about past or remote events
Metalinguistic awareness
Knowledge of language as a system.
Language acquisition device (LAD)
A set of linguistic processing skills that nativists believe to be innate; presumably the LAD enables a child to infer the rules governing others' speech and then use these rules to produce language
Child-directed speech
Speech used by adults speaking with young children, it involves short, simple sentences spoken slowly and in a high-pitched voice, often with much repetition and with exaggerated emphasis on key words
Expansion
A conversational tactic used by adults in speaking to young children in which they respond to a child's utterance with a more grammatically complete expression of the same thought
Mastery motivation
An intrinsic motive to master and control the environment evident early in infancy
Mastery orientation
A tendency to thrive on challenges and persist in the face of failure because of healthy attributions that lead to the belief that increased effort will pay off
Learned helplessness orientation
A tendency to avoid challenges and to cease trying in the face of failure primarily because of a tendency to attribute failure to lack of ability and therefore to believe that little can be done to improve the results
Learning goal
A goal adopted by learners in which they seek to learn new things so that they can improve their abilities.
Performance goal
A goal adopted by learners in which they attempt to prove their ability rather than to improve it
Alphabetic principle
The idea that the letters in printed words represent the sounds in spoken words
Phonological awareness
The understanding that spoken words can be decomposed into some number of basic sound units, or phonemes; an important skill in learning to read.
Emergent literacy
The developmental precursors of reading skills in young children, including knowledge, skills, and attributes that will facilitate the acquisition of reading competence
Dyslexia
Serious difficulties learning to read in children who have normal intellectual ability and no sensory impairments or emotional difficulties that could account for their learning problems
Ability grouping
The practice in education of grouping students according to ability and educating them in classes with students of comparable academic or intellectual standing; also called ability tracking or simply tracking
Inclusion
The educational practice of integrating handicapped students into regular classrooms rather than placing them in segregated special education classes; also called mainstreaming
Cooperative learning
Procedures that involve assigning students, usually of different races or ability levels, to work teams that are reinforced for performing well as team and that encourage cooperation among teammates
Literacy
The ability to use printed information to function in society, achieve goals, and develop potential