Ways of Knowing: Fowler's Stages of Faith
Processes for establishing belief based on proof derived by systematic examination of evidence.
Processes for establishing belief that does not require proof or evidence.
Awareness of good and evil is based on one's own intuitive images of the social and physical worlds.
Intuitive thought does not differentiate between fantasy and reality.
Quasi-logical thought is concrete, that is, based on experience with little consideration of context.
Stories are interpreted literally. God is a parent figure. Parents are godlike.
Thought is increasing abstract, less limited to one's experience.
Thought continues to be influenced by others. Peers become increasingly influential, sometimes displacing parents.
One's values/beliefs are subject to in-depth exploration and analysis.
Increasing clarification of one's values/beliefs and acceptance of responsibility for acting on those values is the primal challenge of young adulthood.
Open consideration and acknowledgement of paradox and opposing ideas and perspectives.
Increasing awareness and acceptance of one's limitations and finiteness.
Transcending specific belief systems, including one's own, to achieve a sense of oneness with all people.
Commitment to eliminating ideological and social barriers that divide people.