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database management system (DBMS)

a group of programs that manipulate the database and provide an interface between the database and the user of the database and other application programs

database administrator (DBA)

a skilled IS professional who directs al activities related to an organization's database


a basic building block of information, consisting of uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numeric digits, or special symbols


typically a name, number, or combination of characters that describes an aspect of a business object or activity


a collection of related data fields


a collection of related records

hierarchy of data

bits. characters, fields, records, files and databases


a generalized class of people, places, or things for which data is collected, stored, and maintained


a characteristic of an entity

data item

the specific value of an attribute


a field or set of fields in a record that used to identify the record

primary key

a field or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record

traditional approach to data management

an approach whereby separate data files are created and stored for each application program

database approach to data management

an approach whereby a pool of related data is sharing by multiple application programs

planned data redundancy

a way of organizing data in which the logical database design is altered so that certain data entities are combined summary totals are carried in the data records rather than calculated from elemental data, and some data attributes are repeated in more than one data entity to improve database performance

data model

a diagram of data entities and their relationship

enterprise data modeling

data modeling done at the level of entire enterprise

entity-relationship (ER) diagrams

data models that use basic graphical symbols to show the organization of the relationship between data

relational model

a database model that describes data in which all data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables, called relations, which are the logical equivalent of files


the allowable values for data attributes


manipulating data to eliminate rows according to certain criteria


manipulating data eliminate columns in a table


manipulating data to combine two or more tables


data manipulation that combines two or more tables using common data attributes to form a new table with only the unique data attributes

data cleanup

the process of looking for and fixing inconsistencies to ensure that data is accurate and complete

flat file

is a simple database program whose records have no relationship to one another


a description of the entire database

data definition language (DDL)

a collection of instructions and commands used to define and describe data and relationships in a specific database

data dictionary

a detailed description of all the data used in the database

concurrency control

a method of dealing with a situation in which two or more people need to access the same record in a database in the same time

data manipulation language (DML)

the commands that are used to manipulate the data in a database

data administrator

a nontechnical position responsible for defining and implementing consistent principles for a variety of data issues

front-end application

is one that directly interacts with people or users

back-end application

interacts with other programs or applications; it only indirectly interacts eith people or users

data warehouse

a database that collects business information from many sources in the enterprise, covering all aspects of the company's processes, products, and customers

data marts

subset of a data warehouse

data mining

an information-analysis tool that involves the automated discovery of patterns and relationships in a data warehouse

predictive analysis

a form of data mining that combines historical data with assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events, such as future product sales or the probability that a customer will default on a loan

business intelligence (BI)

the process of gathering enough of the right information in a timely manner and usable form and analyzing it to have a positive impact on business strategy, tactics or operations

competitive intelligence

one aspect of business intelligence limited to information about competitors and the ways that knowledge affects strategy, tactics, and operations


the steps an organization takes to protect information sought by "hostile" intelligence gatherers

distributed database

a database in which the data can be spread across several smaller databases connected via telecommunications devices

replicated database

a database that holds a duplicate set of frequently used data

online analytical processing (OLAP)

software that allows users to explore data from a number of perspectives

object-oriented database

a database that stores both data and its processing instructions

object-oriented database management system (OODBMS)

a group of programs that manipulate an object-oriented database and provide a user interface and connections to other application programs

object-relational database management system (ORDBS)

a DBMS capable of manipulating audio, video, and graphical data

the object data standard

is a design standard created by the object database management group for developing object oriented database system

spatial data technology

involves using a database to store and access data according to the locations it describes and to permit spatial queries and analysis

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