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ISYS 263 CH 5

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database management system (DBMS)
a group of programs that manipulate the database and provide an interface between the database and the user of the database and other application programs
database administrator (DBA)
a skilled IS professional who directs al activities related to an organization's database
character
a basic building block of information, consisting of uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numeric digits, or special symbols
field
typically a name, number, or combination of characters that describes an aspect of a business object or activity
record
a collection of related data fields
file
a collection of related records
hierarchy of data
bits. characters, fields, records, files and databases
entity
a generalized class of people, places, or things for which data is collected, stored, and maintained
attribute
a characteristic of an entity
data item
the specific value of an attribute
key
a field or set of fields in a record that used to identify the record
primary key
a field or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record
traditional approach to data management
an approach whereby separate data files are created and stored for each application program
database approach to data management
an approach whereby a pool of related data is sharing by multiple application programs
planned data redundancy
a way of organizing data in which the logical database design is altered so that certain data entities are combined summary totals are carried in the data records rather than calculated from elemental data, and some data attributes are repeated in more than one data entity to improve database performance
data model
a diagram of data entities and their relationship
enterprise data modeling
data modeling done at the level of entire enterprise
entity-relationship (ER) diagrams
data models that use basic graphical symbols to show the organization of the relationship between data
relational model
a database model that describes data in which all data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables, called relations, which are the logical equivalent of files
domain
the allowable values for data attributes
selecting
manipulating data to eliminate rows according to certain criteria
projecting
manipulating data eliminate columns in a table
joining
manipulating data to combine two or more tables
linking
data manipulation that combines two or more tables using common data attributes to form a new table with only the unique data attributes
data cleanup
the process of looking for and fixing inconsistencies to ensure that data is accurate and complete
flat file
is a simple database program whose records have no relationship to one another
schema
a description of the entire database
data definition language (DDL)
a collection of instructions and commands used to define and describe data and relationships in a specific database
data dictionary
a detailed description of all the data used in the database
concurrency control
a method of dealing with a situation in which two or more people need to access the same record in a database in the same time
data manipulation language (DML)
the commands that are used to manipulate the data in a database
data administrator
a nontechnical position responsible for defining and implementing consistent principles for a variety of data issues
front-end application
is one that directly interacts with people or users
back-end application
interacts with other programs or applications; it only indirectly interacts eith people or users
data warehouse
a database that collects business information from many sources in the enterprise, covering all aspects of the company's processes, products, and customers
data marts
subset of a data warehouse
data mining
an information-analysis tool that involves the automated discovery of patterns and relationships in a data warehouse
predictive analysis
a form of data mining that combines historical data with assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events, such as future product sales or the probability that a customer will default on a loan
business intelligence (BI)
the process of gathering enough of the right information in a timely manner and usable form and analyzing it to have a positive impact on business strategy, tactics or operations
competitive intelligence
one aspect of business intelligence limited to information about competitors and the ways that knowledge affects strategy, tactics, and operations
counterintelligence
the steps an organization takes to protect information sought by "hostile" intelligence gatherers
distributed database
a database in which the data can be spread across several smaller databases connected via telecommunications devices
replicated database
a database that holds a duplicate set of frequently used data
online analytical processing (OLAP)
software that allows users to explore data from a number of perspectives
object-oriented database
a database that stores both data and its processing instructions
object-oriented database management system (OODBMS)
a group of programs that manipulate an object-oriented database and provide a user interface and connections to other application programs
object-relational database management system (ORDBS)
a DBMS capable of manipulating audio, video, and graphical data
the object data standard
is a design standard created by the object database management group for developing object oriented database system
spatial data technology
involves using a database to store and access data according to the locations it describes and to permit spatial queries and analysis