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What period during 1914-1945 was an age when 'old' values like Victorianism and rural life clashed with 'new' values like women's rights and urban life? This period is marked by two World Wars, and in many ways it can also be understood as a war between fundamentally different worldviews.
Elected in 1908, this president was elected because Americans believed he would continue Roosevelt's popular Republican polices.
Taft's strategy of encouraging Wall Street Investors to invest their money in foreign markets in which the U.S. has strategic interests, such as the Far East and the Panama Canal region.
Dollar Diplomacy in China
Japan and Russia controlled the Manchurian railroad system. Taft believed that if he didn't take interest in this system that the U.S. would be frozen out of emerging Chinese markets and the U.S. "open door" policy in China would be undermined. In 1909, Secretary of State Philander C. Knox proposed that American bankers and industrialists would purchase the Manchurian railroads from Japan and Russia and return them to Chinese control. Japan and Russia refused the offer, which publicly embarrassed the Taft administration, but Taft persevered, and in 1912 the U.S. and five other nations offered the new Chinese Republic a loan.
Dollar Diplomacy in Latin America
In an extension of the Roosevelt Corollary, Taft encouraged investors to spend money in Latin American countries such as Honduras and Haiti. Adhering to the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, Taft would not allow foreign investors into Latin American markets, so America felt a responsibility to support these financially struggling republics. Many of these nations were constantly on the verge of financial collapse and required foreign investment to strengthen their shaky foundations.
Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty
What treaty was signed In November 1903 by Philippe Bunau-Varilla, Panama's ambassador to the United States, granting rights the United States to build and indefinitely administer the Panama Canal.
He served as Panama's ambassador and was a French citizen. He was not authorized to sign a treaty on behalf of Panama without Panamanian review. This treaty became a contentious diplomatic issue between the two countries, culminating in riots in which 21 Panamanians and 4 U.S. soldiers were killed.
This region later required U.S. troops to protect the substantial American investment. In 1912, a group of 2,500 marines landed in Nicaragua to suppress a rebellion, and they remained for 13 years due to continued instability.
This democrat won the election in 1912. Within one week of taking office, he removed governmental support for American businesses operating in the Caribbean and China. He was an intense critic of imperialism and his goal was to reverse Roosevelt's "big stick" policies and Taft's "dollar diplomacy." His vision for U.S. foreign policy was based on morality. He strongly believed that his immediate predecessors had pursued a policy that would breed dislike of the U.S. and often sacrifice goodwill for short-term gain. For this reason,his foreign policy has sometimes been called "missionary diplomacy" or "moral diplomacy."
Bull Moose Party
Roosevelt ran under this third party, in the election of 1912, slipping the Republican Party split in two - giving democrats a win.
Haiti and Dollar Diplomacy
Taft had tried to improve _______'s economy through the influx of American investment called ________ _______, but Wilson began withdrawing some of America's involvement when he took office. In 1914 and 1915, their people were outraged by the oppressive nature of their President, so they rebelled. In response, Wilson reluctantly sent troops to protect American citizens and investments. Due to continued instability, U.S. troops remained for 19 years.
The system that Wilson used in trying to stabilize the Caribbean and Latin America during the onset of World War I, with a minimal amount of American involvement. However, he ended up having to send troops to Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic, which ensured a U.S. military presence in the Caribbean and Central America for decades. Regardless of his sincere intentions to halt the spread of imperialism, Wilson intervened in Latin American affairs more than any other president.
A series of brutal dictators had controlled the country for decades, and many of them mismanaged their resources, making themselves rich while the majority of Mexicans were desperately poor.
the leader at the start of the Mexican Revolution. He was particularly ruthless and oppressive.
In 1913 a coup replaced the sitting President this man. Many Mexicans feared him and fled to the United States in order to escape his tyranny.
Venustiano Carranza and Francisco "Pancho" Villa
In 1914 the U.S. began supplying weapons to Huerta's rivals. These leaders created a rebel army to unseat Huerta.
Argentina, Brazil, and Chile were known as the ____________. They convinced President Huerta to step down.
Carranza filled the open presidential seat, but ___________ emerged as his chief rival. He not only defied Carranza's régime by leading an armed revolution, he directly challenged the extensive U.S. involvement in Mexico. Wilson supported Carranza against him and he, angered by Wilson's actions, retaliated by killing eighteen Americans in Mexico and then embarking on a bold raid into Columbus, New Mexico killing nineteen Americans.
the triple wall of privilege" (:the tariff, the banks, and the trusts.)
President Wilson domestically called out for an all-out war
Underwood Tariff Bill
Wilson called a special meeting of Congress in 1913 to address the tariff. He convinced Congress to pass the _________________, which significantly reduced the tariff rates.
The most monetary problem of the Gilded Age was the inelasticity of currency. Banking reserves were located in New York and a handful of other large cities and could not be mobilized in times of financial stress. In 1913, President Wilson delivered a plea to Congress for a reform of the banking system. Congress answered and in the same year, he signed the _______________ Act, appointed a new ________________ Board, and empowered the board to issue paper money. As a result of his decision, the amount of money in United States circulation can be increased or decreased as needed.
Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914
At Wilson's persuasion, Congress passed this act in 1914. The commissioners were expected to crush monopolies at the source.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914
lengthened the Sherman Act's list of business practices that were deemed objectionable and it also sought to exempt labor and agricultural organizations from anti-trust prosecution, while legalizing strikes and peaceful picketing.
This term describes the attempt by some Southerners in the late 19th century to lead the South toward a modern, industrial future. The idea was that African Americans would no longer be dependent on the raising of cotton, but rather would industrialize and become part of the modern national economy.
He was the editor of the Atlanta Constitution, popularized the phrase "New South" through his repeated use of it in articles and editorials for the newspaper.
Grade and Booker T. Washington
New South advocates who wanted southern economic regeneration, sectional reconciliation, racial harmony and their idea of the gospel of work.
(1900)____% of African Americans still lived in the Southern US in 1900 - roughly the same percentage as lived in the South in 1870.
(1900) Only _____ African American household heads owned their own homes (less than half the percentage among whites).
half and farmer
(1900) About ______ of black men and about 35 percent of black women who reported an occupation to the Census said that they worked as a ______, as opposed to about one-third of white men and about eight percent of white women.
farm and South
A typical African American family at the start of the twentieth century lived and worked on a _____ in the_____, did not own its home, and was unlikely to have its children in school.
Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)
This case solidified "Jim Crow" in the South by establishing that the constitutionality of so-called "separate but equal" services and facilities for black and white Americans.
The South's attempt to maintain Jim Crow also led to a late 19th/early 20th century spike in race-related __________. One motive for this was the enforcement of Jim Crow social conventions - punishing perceived violations of customs and laws mandating segregation of whites and blacks.
In order to _______, poll taxes, literacy and understanding tests, and increased residency requirements, that disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites were used in 1890-1908. Forcing them off voter registration lists also prevented them from serving on juries, whose members were limited to voters. When challenges to these laws made their way to the Supreme Court, the states' provisions were upheld.
Ida B. Wells
In 1892 journalist was shocked when three friends in Memphis were lynched because their grocery store competed successfully with a white grocery store, and in response, began a global anti-lynching campaign that raised awareness of the social injustice. As a result of her efforts, black women in the US became active in the anti-lynching crusade, often in the form of clubs that raised money to publicize the abuses. When the NAACP (1909) was formed, she became part of its multi-racial leadership and continued to be active against lynching. The battle for control over the "New South" was becoming increasingly heated.
President Wilson issued a _______________________at the outbreak of World War I. Most Americans were anti-Germany from the outset, but the majority of Americans were against becoming overly involved in the fighting.
In 1915, several months after Germany started to use submarines in the war, one of Germany's submarines sunk the British liner Lusitania, killing 128 Americans. When Germany sunk another British liner, the ______, Berlin agreed to not sink unarmed passenger ships without warning, but continued to sink innocent ships including a passenger steamer, the Sussex.
President Wilson informed the Germans that unless they stopped sinking ships, he would break diplomatic relations, leading to war. Germany agreed to Wilson's ultimatum, but attached additions to their ________________: the United States would have to persuade the Allies to modify what Berlin regarded as their illegal blockade. Wilson accepted the Germany pledge, without accepting the "string" of additions.
Sussex Pledge and Zimmerman Telegram
Wilson ran for reelection on the promise that he would keep the United States out of the war. However, two events changed his mind:
1) 1917; Germany announced it would resume unrestricted submarine warfare (would sink all our ships) and that was a dejection of the __________ ________.
2) The _________ ________, a message intercepted by the British from Germany to Mexico in 1917 proposing that in the event of a German war with the United states, Mexico should attack the US. It would be a Mexican opportunity to retake the Mexican Cession.
October Revolution Bolshevik
Then one key event changed the trajectory of the war in Europe: In March 1917 a revolution overthrew Russia's tsarist regime. The second Revolution, commonly called the_________________, was an armed coup organized by the ______________party. These revolutions were caused by and led to Russia pulling out of World War I. Shortly after President Wilson called a special Congressional session, in which he proposed the declaration of war against Germany.
"Make the world safe for democracy"
This was Wilson's famous line justifying United States involvement in the World War. It was based on the belief that from this international power struggle, a democratic revolution could arise. In other words, a new democratic world order led by the United States would follow.
President Woodrow Wilson's War Message (April 2, 1917)
"The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against mankind."
Senator George W. Norris (Opposition to Wilson's War Message, April 4, 1917)
This senator said that the reason we're entering the War is all economic profit motive,'merchants of death' - we're being brought into this war by the people who will make money off of the war.
Senator Robert M. LaFollette (Opposition to Wilson's War Message, April 4, 1917)
"The failure to treat the belligerent nations of Europe alike, the failure to reject the unlawful "war zones" of both Germany and Great Britain is wholly accountable for our present dilemma." (claiming that we have already picked sides)
Destroy this Mad Brute
This cartoon displays a German soldier, the club says culture - the German has this high illustrious culture, but underneath they are brutal. The women is America, and the monkey is going to rape her...any one that we want to dehumanize we picture them as a monkey. Part of the mobilization for was to create an either you're with us, or with out us mentality. The war is not an everyday feeling, now 5% of a nation is taking on the burden. In World War I everyone is pitching.
Raising money was a key issue in the war. The government organized bond drives, or_______________, and people felt obliged to buy bonds because they were afraid of being seen as unpatriotic. Eventually, they raised over $21 billion for the war.
War Industries Board
Created in July 1917, they controlled raw materials, production, prices, and labor relations. It also encouraged production by allocating raw materials, standardizing manufactured products, instituting strict production and purchasing controls, and paying high prices to businesses.
The Food Administration
This was created in 1917 as part of the war effort, and a response to the poor harvests of 1916 and 1917. Headed by Herbert Hoover, it set prices for agricultural goods high to encourage the production of agricultural products. It encouraged conservation with such days as "meatless Tuesdays."
Frankfurters were renamed "hot dogs" or "liberty dogs", sauerkraut became "liberty cabbage," and German shepherds became "liberty dogs." People with German surnames legally changed their names, and language at all critical of the United States became suspect - this is an example of?
The Espionage Act of 1917
This enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements, inciting rebellion, or obstructing recruitment or the draft. Also papers which opposed the government could be banned from the U.S. postal service.
The Sedition Act of 1918
This made any criticism of the government illegal. It was poorly applied and used to trample civil liberties during the war hysteria as in the example of the imprisonment of Eugene Debs.
Eugene V. Debs imprisoned
He was questionably imprisoned and was given a 10-year prison term for giving a speech at a Socialist's convention. The speech criticized American policy, involvement in the war and for warning of the dangers of war and militarism. His imprisonment was an example of the hysteria of the period.
Schenk v. U.S. (1919):
A U.S. Supreme circuit decision that upheld the Espionage Act and concluded that citizens do not have a right to full freedom of speech in wartime. Even though this later Supreme Court cases will, to some extent, overturn this rule, the case did establish a "clear and present danger" precedent limiting some kinds of speech, even to this day.
The Fourteen Points
These were Wilson's proposals and beliefs for a post-war world order. They dealt with the things that led to World War I. For example, the first points called for open treaties, freedom of the seas, arms reduction and free trade. The other points dealt with self-determination and finally a general association of nations, the League of Nations. During the conference of Versailles, Wilson pushed the Fourteen Points and was partly successful.
Versailles Conference and Treaty:
The Big Four dominated the conference in 1919 that determined the postwar world order. Wilson promoted his Fourteen Points while other Allies sought vengeance. The treaty found Germany liable for the war and established new nations based on self-determination. It also made German colonies mandates under the League of Nations and included the controversial Article X that kept the US out of the League. These provisions set the stage for World War II.
The most controversial of the League of Nations covenants, this article of the Versailles Treaty said that all nations must protect the territorial and political integrity of other League members. The article meant that if one nation was engaged in war, all others must become involved. This article was a large part of why the US rejected the League.
These were implemented by European powers wanting vengeance against Germany. Germany was forced to pay a huge sum, some $33 billion to the Allies for civilian and veterans costs. This huge amount led to Germany's economic downfall, allowing for the rise of Hitler and World War II.
Senate rejection, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge:
Senate reservationists did not fully oppose the League except for mainly one Article. They did not want the United States going to war defending another League member without Congress's permission, as was stipulated by Article X. They wanted that article removed before ratification.
Thousands of American ________ took vacated jobs and became involved in industrial production as well as volunteer agencies at home and abroad.
During the war, _______ left their traditional homes in the South and migrated North for job opportunities in the war industries. About 500,000 they migrated North during the war. Led to racial tension and violence in the North. This growing concentration of them led to the Harlem Renaissance.
During World War I, military casualties alone accounted for just over 8.5 million deaths on both sides. Russia and Germany by far lost the most men at 1.7 million killed each. In comparison, the United States lost only __________ men. In all, over 21 million men were injured during the war.
Model T Ford
The 1920s were a time of excitement and prosperity. The stock market was booming, cars like the __________ were now affordable, and modern culture was in full swing.
"Rhapsody in Blue"
The 'anthem' of the 1920s, a piece of jazz music entitled_____________ by George Gershwin, epitomized the age. Other musical notables -- Louis Armstrong, "Duke" Ellington, and Bessie Smith - became popular.
Charles Lindbergh and Spirit of St. Louis
He was the cultural hero of the 1920s and was the first person to make a nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic. In his single engine plane, named __________, he flew from New York City to Paris.
The "Lost Generation"
Authors felt that there was a "moral loss of aimlessness" with WWI having destroyed the idea that if you acted virtuously, god things would happen. This period of time instead, saw good men go off to war and come back in body bags, and felt that the moral guideposts that had previously worked to define 'good' and 'bad' were now gone
F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, and John Dos Passos were the most famous ______________ writers.
The phrase "Lost Generation", which was initially coined by a female author named__________________, was used by Hemingway as an epigraph for his first novel, The Sun Also Rises, and that is why it 'stuck'.
Literature was also marked by writers who began to critique, quite openly, the notions of what it means to live in 'the middle class.' The vision of life in the middle class that had been idealized by some in the Gilded Age began to be criticized by others. Perhaps the most famous author in this genre was _____________.
Babbitt and Main Street
Sinclair Lewis wrote two novels entitled ___________ and ____________, in which he critiqued the so-called 'good life' for its vacuous attitude and elitism.
Nobel Prize lecture
Sinclair Lewis lamented that America is "the most contradictory, the most depressing, the most stirring, of any land in the world today"."in America most of us — not readers alone, but even writers — are still afraid of any literature which is not a glorification of everything American, a glorification of our faults as well as our virtues," in what speech?
"The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"
The shortest and best example of the kind of middle-class ennui and desperation of modernism is exemplified in the poem, ________________ written by American poet T.S. Eliot in 1919.
In the 1920s, a burst of creativity in African-American literature, music and art was known as the.
Langston Hughes Zora Neal Hurston
Poet _____________ and author _________________ are among this movement's most prominent literature figures.
The Harlem Renaissance also encompassed jazz and blues music and a flowering of art, with _________________ as the most famous black artist of the time period.
Women of the 1920s
They were the age of the flapper, with her short bobbed hair, dress with fringes, flat chest, and of course, her ubiquitous cigarette. She tended to listen to jazz, drink in speakeasies, and danced the Charleston. She was the opposite of the Victorian woman in every way, and her 'liberation' (coming as it did on the heels of the passage of the 19th amendment.
During the 1920s changes in postwar behavior had a liberating effect on this group. They were noticed more for their sex appeal and presented as thus in the advertising industry. The burden of domestic chores was alleviated with new technology, while women themselves turned to a more liberated attitude.
Women who would leave their boot flaps open became the stereotype of a woman in the 1920s. Independent and representing the rebellious youth of the age, they were usually characterized by "bobbed" hair, dangling cigarette, short skirt, and heavy make-up.
The great innovator of the era, was also a proponent of anti-semitism. His book, The International Jew, was admired by Hitler and became a bestseller in Nazi Germany. Ford, in turn, greatly admired Hitler once he came to power in the 1930s.
The 1920s saw a period of 'backlash' against immigrants, blacks, and anyone else considered to be 'other.' In the 1920s, anarchists and communist sympathizers ranked at the top of the government's 'most dangerous' lists, and numerous First Amendment rights were squelched in order to give government the power to fight 'the enemy within.'
1919-1921; A series of office raids initiated by Attorney Alexander Palmer where all 'leftists' were targeted. Italian anarchists were high on the list of dangerous groups, and this led to anti-Italian sentiment.
Sacco and Vanzetti
The trial between two Italian men who were found guilty of committing a robbery, but their conviction was based more on anti-Italian and anti-anarchist sentiment than it was on the facts of the case (it remains unclear whether they were innocent or guilty). The two were electrocuted for their crimes.
These were put on certain immigrants (Irish, Italians, Asians), and eugenics, the "science" of genes and race, and led to I.Q. tests for immigrants beginning in 1910 through the 1920's. President Coolidge, defending these restrictions, stated that, "America must be kept American."
Immigration Acts, Quota System:
In 1921 Congress limited annual immigration to about 350,000 people annually. In 1924, they limited the number to 164,000 people annually. This also restricted immigration to 2% of the total number of people who lived in the U.S. from their respective country since 1890 and completely rejected the immigration of Asians. The intent of these provisions was to reduce the immigration of foreign people in the United States.
This group that reemerged from Reconstruction days to become a full-fledged American movement. This 'second' movement of them began in Stone Mountain, GA.
The founding of the second Ku Klux Klan in 1915 demonstrated the new found power of modern mass ______.
The Birth of a Nation
1915, this film was released. It mythologized and glorified the Klan and depicted African-Americans as sexual predators and buffoons. It was the most popular film of the decade.
a Jewish man in Marietta, was accused of the rape and murder of a young white girl, Mary Phagan. He was lynched against a backdrop of media frenzy.
Knights of Mary Phagan
The second Klu Klux Klan was founded with a new anti-immigrant and anti-Semitic agenda. The organizers originally called themselves _________________ and the new organization emulated the fictionalized version of the original Klan presented in The Birth of a Nation.
bootlegging and organized crime
The 1920s were an age of Prohibition (18th Amendment, repealed in 1932 by the 21st Amendment) and therefore, it became an age of __________ and ____________. The Mafia, headed by Al Capone, rose to power in this era.
The Scopes Trial, 1925
Dayton Tennessee: John S, a science teacher, is recruited to test a Tennessee law that bans evolution. Clarence Darrow is attorney for the defense, and William Jennings Bryan, now an old man, is attorney for the prosecution. The case becomes known as "The Monkey Trial". In the end, Scopes is found guilty and given a $100 fine, but he is exempted from Jail. The trial, known as the trial of the century, encapsulates the era.
The 1920s is marked by a string of _____________ (which party?) Presidents. As a group, they believe in laissez-faire economics, side with big business against worker rights, and tend towards isolationism in foreign affairs.
Warren G. Harding Election (1920)
The democrats nominated James M. Cox and Franklin D. Roosevelt for his running mate. Republicans chose Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio and Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts. Harding sensed popular longing for calm and won in a landslide victory. Warren G. Harding called for a return to "normalcy," and this term came to symbolize, to powerful businessmen, the immediate abandonment of the foreign and domestic policies of Wilson. It also meant a return to high protective tariffs and a reduction in taxes.
Teapot Dome Scandal, 1921
Harding's term was marked by scandal. In this event, Secretary of the Interior Fall leased government oil reserves in Wyoming to the president of the Mammoth Oil Company. All suspects evaded prosecution, but the event tainted Harding's administration.
Chief Justice Taft
Was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1921. Under his jurisdiction, the Supreme Court overturned many progressive reform measures that were opposed by popular business interests. An example of this was the 1919 federal law imposing taxes on the products of child labor that he overturned.
In 1923, President harding died of a heart attack and Vice-President _____________ takes the presidential oath. Dubbed, 'Silent Cal,' he was known for being a man of few words. As president, he held an antipathy to progressivism, believed the government had no obligation in protecting citizens against natural disasters, and warned of "the tyranny of bureaucratic regulation and control." he easily won the election of 1924.
The new weapons unleashed during World War I led politicians in the United States to call for a new era of _______________ during the 1920s.
Washington Disarmament Conference
Also called the Washington Naval Conference it convened during 1921-1922. At the conference, called by the United States, the issue of the arms race and the idea of keeping peace on the Pacific Ocean were discussed. From this conference came the ideal of setting a standard on the desired tonnage that each nation should have, and the desired amount of battleships that each nation should have.
This treaty of 1928 denounced war between countries when it was used for the purpose of handling relations between countries. It sought to bring about a change in the way countries dealt with foreign policy, but is often ridiculed for its overly idealistic approach.
buying on margin
The 1920s had been characterized by exceptional economic growth and expansion of the middle class. However, too much of the economic expansion had been based on this in the stock market. and 'buying on credit' in the marketplace.
Tariff of 1922 and "rugged individualism"
From the early 1920s onward, the general policy of the federal government favored big business over labor protections and product regulation. The 1920s were an age of tariffs and isolationism, as seen in the ___________________, and it was an age that promoted _________________ in which citizens were expected to rise to the top without federal aid and without governmental protections should illness, bad luck, or other catastrophes befall them.
The Fordney-McCumber Tariff
1922; This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. The goal of this tariff was to push foreign competition out of the way of American markets and after an isolationist principle was introduced, the U.S. would become self sufficient.
The ideal quality which every American should possess, _____________________ meant people who were self made individuals, who could handle the pressures given by a damaged society, and who would rise above them in order to succeed. These ideas were encompassed in Hoover's book.
The 1928 presidential election was a classic example of the decade's monumental clash of ideologies. The Republicans ran _________________, a competent but mild mannered and unexciting candidate, and the Democrats ran Al Smith, a brash and brusque Irish Catholic Governor from New Yorker. The Republican was elected, with supporters viewing him as the "safer" choice. He was also seen as a president who would further boost the nation's growing prosperity because of his inclination in favor of big business
During Hoover's term of office, came the onset of the ______________ and the ensuing struggle of the government to relieve Americans and recover the economy. Unfortunately for Hoover, his ideologies and legislation were not effective in restoring prosperity to the nation, and what little he did, he did too late.
The Stock Market Crash
Americans were overleveraged in the market, and the "irrational exuberance" of the decade drove stock prices well above their true worth. Add this to a growing housing bubble, with homeowners routinely borrowing more than their houses actually were worth. Ultimately, this was caused by a number of ailments, including unregulated trade within the process of buying stocks, and a housing bubble that led to bank foreclosures all over the nation.
The stock market crash, the inflation in agriculture, the uncontrolled policies of the stock market, the overproduction of goods by industries, the loss of enthusiasm directed at the consumer products that were being produced and a loss of mirth in the economy created a no buying situation.
The depression soon became an international event; the devastating effects that the Depression had on America led to a spiral of depressions sprung up all over Europe. America could not keep up with international trading, thus further deepening the problem. The areas hardest hit was __________ for it depended greatly on U.S. exports.
An economic notion that the government should only get involved in the economy by pumping money into it, thus creating a surplus supply of money that would eventually "trickle" down onto the rest of society. Hoover believed that giving money directly to citizens hard hit by the economy would stifle initiative.
Hoover's response was hampered by his ideological inclinations and failure to recognize the extent of the problem until it was too late. He initially took a _____________ approach, reading the depression as part of a natural economic cycle of boom and bust, and when his government did contemplate action, Hoover's response was hampered by his ideological inclinations and failure to recognize the extent of the problem until it was too late.
Hoovervilles and Hoover Flags
What the public perceived as Hoover's cold indifference to their plight led to shantytowns being renamed ________________ and empty pockets renamed _________________.
By the end of Hoover's term, Hoover even managed to alienate World War I veterans, who marched on Washington in 1932 as a group called the ______________. When these veterans, who were asking for an increase in pensions, reached the White House, Hoover used excessive force to disband the protest. His popularity plummeted as a result.
Reconstruction Finance Corp., (RFC):
Created under the presidency of Herbert Hoover, was designed to give out loans to banks, railroads, and monopolistic companies in order to pump money back into the economy during the years of the Depression.
Federal Home Loan Act
In 1931 under Hoover, the five man Home Loan Board was created and the creation of banks to handle home mortgages provided money to homeowners that needed loans.
National Credit Corporation
Created in 1931, under the persuasion of Herbert Hoover, it got the largest banks in the country, at that time, to provide lending agencies that would be able to give banks, on the brink of foreclosure, money that could be used for loans.
Emergency Committee for Employment
Was created in 1930 under the presidency of Herbert Hoover. The goal for the committee was to coordinate efforts between other agencies in order to provide relief for the massive unemployed during the years of the Great Depression.
Hoover Dam and Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Hoover also pumped money into the country with his massive federal project, the _______________________, and he tried to stimulate manufacturing by passing a tariff even more restrictive than the Tariff of 1922. However, neither of these measures were enough to pull the nation out of depression; in fact, many economists believe that the ________________________ made the worldwide depression even worse.
Originally called Boulder Dam, it stands 726 feet high and 1244 feet wide. Located on the Colorado River in Arizona, provides flood control, electricity, and irrigation for farms. It was constructed from 1931-1935 and began operations in 1936.
The Hawley-Smoot Tariff
1930; Raised protective tariffs on the United States. It pushed rates on imported goods to the highest point they've ever been, continuing the isolationist trend of the 1920s.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
In the Election of 1932, the Republican candidate was Hoover and the Democratic one was ___________________. The issue was ending the Great Depression. Hoover's platform was to increase the government's role in the economy; Roosevelt's message was "Pay attention to the forgotten man at the bottom of the economy." The democratic candidate won by a large margin, with a significant percentage of African-Americans voting for him. This election marks the shift of black voters away from the "party of Lincoln."
radio and "fireside chats."
Herbert Hoover was deeply unpopular in large part because he was seen as 'out of touch' with the cares and concerns of ordinary Americans. Roosevelt, in contrast, made effective communication his first priority, utilizing the ____________ to promote his political agenda. During the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt's first term in office Roosevelt held informal radio conversations every so often that were dubbed ____________. The topic discussed was the economy that had been plagued by the depression, and the means that were going to be taken in order to revive it. (Presidents, to this very day, have continued the tradition of giving weekly addresses to the public on the radio).
Roosevelt built a team of advisers, beyond the cabinet, that were known as his ___________. This group comprised of both liberals and conservatives, helped in his decision making process.
Roosevelt also appointed the first woman to a Cabinet position, ______________ as Secretary of Labor. She was a social reformer, strengthening the Department of Labor, and developing the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Social Security Act, and the Fair Labor Standards Act (1938).
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Roosevelt wife (and distant cousin) Eleanor Roosevelt also served as a "non-official" member of his Cabinet, fighting for women and minority rights and authoring books, including the _________________________.
John Maynard Keynes
Roosevelt was deeply influenced by _________________, a University if Chicago economist who theorized that the relationship between supply and demand was critical: when the demand doesn't meet expectations there is unemployment and depression, while if demand surpasses production inflation occurs.
Keynesian Economics and Deficit Spending
_______________ demands that, in a depression, the government spend lots and maintain low taxes. This depends on _______________, a condition in which the government spends more than in takes in.
Roosevelt also believed in a theory called, ______________, in which the government pumps money directly to the poor and unemployed so that they could buy more products.
Franklin Roosevelt was inaugurated on March 4, 1933, pledging to do his utmost in his first '100 Days' of office to stop the spiraling depression. He created the _______________________ to pass a series of laws in the first Hundred Days (March 9-June 16, 1933)
The first thing Roosevelt did was to create a ____________, shutting down all federal banks so that money could be deposited in them. Then, he passes the following banking and money acts.
Emergency Banking Relief Act
1933; Gave the president power to regulate banking transactions and to reopen only solvent banks.
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, 1933.
The act itself made 750 million dollars that had once been kept in the governments gold reserves now able to be used in the creation of loans to private businesses.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Insured individual bank deposits up to $5,000, ending the epidemic of bank failures.
In 1930, one year after the stock market crash, the unemployment rate was about 8%. By 1933, it had jumped to 25%, with a rate even higher among African-Americans. To combat this tide of joblessness, FDR created
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
This program sent 3 million young men to government camps on federally owned land, to do useful work including reforestation, swamp drainage, flood control, and trail building.
Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)
Led by social worker Harry Hopkins, this group dispersed payments to the states to pay for state-level work projects. It allocated $500 million to relieve cities and states.
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
Focused on fighting unemployment and regulating unfair business practices. It pumped money into the job market and created codes of ethics for businesses.
Civilian Works Administration (CWA)
A "make-work" program created to ease suffering during the winter of 1933-34.
Farmers had it very hard in the 1930s. Not only were they affected by the nationwide Great Depression they also had a high foreclosure rate and unusually bad draught condition. This created the _____________, which lasted from 1933-1938 and was especially bad in Missouri, Texas, Kansas, Arkansas and Ohio.
The Dust Bowl forced 350,000 migrants, often called ________, to pick up and relocate. Ordinary citizens also could not keep up with their mortgage payments, having borrowed more during the 1920 building boom than they could afford.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Provided money to farmers to help meet mortgage payments. Also paid farmers NOT to plant crops, to stop problems related to overproduction leading to low crop prices. As a result of the limits put on the planting of crops, farm prices eventually rose.
Farm Credit Administration
This was designed to help rural Americans refinance their farmland; it also helped to restore the livelihood that was missing in agriculture.
Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC)
Provided money to non-farm homes, and was aimed at helping the middle class.
Public Works Administration (PWA)
Headed by Harold Ickes, the Secretary of Interior, the PWA was a governmental agency that spent $4 billion on 34,000 public works projects including dams, bridges, and public buildings.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Pushed for by Senator George Norris, it was a governmental agency that ruled several federal programs of building dams, the construction of hydroelectric dams, and controlling floods.
Created in 1933, the TVA was eventually curtailed in 1980 when ___________ were introduced.
Rural Electrification Administration (REA)
It was an agency that provided low-interest loans to utility companies and farmers' cooperatives to reach the 90% of rural farmers who lacked electrical power. This program was so successful that by 1941 40% of these farms had received electrical power.
Works Progress Administration
Directed by Harry Hopkins in 1935, the eight-year program employed 8 million people and provided $11 billion dollars to the economy in which 650,000 miles of roads, 124,000 bridges, and 125,000 schools, hospitals, arts, and post offices were built.
The Federal Arts Project
This created positions for artists by making positions for art teachers and decorating posts for offices and courthouses with murals. The Arts Project also funded photographers, including Dorothea Lange and Walker Evans.
Wagner Act, 1935
Supported by R. F. Wagner, it established defined unjust labor practices, secured workers the right to bargain collectively, and established the National Labor Relations Board. As an integral part of the New Deal, it catalyzed the force of unionization. Also known as The National Labor Relation Act.
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
This agency was assembled by Congress in 1935 and oversaw the National Labor Relation Act (1935). As an independent agency, they controlled the secret ballot elections during collective bargaining and managed the complaints of unfairness by the employers or unions.
Fair Labor Standards Act
This act was created by the Roosevelt administration of northerners to undermine the South's competitive edge. It established a minimum wage for most workers while it concurrently created a forty-four hour workweek and banned child labor.
Steel Workers Organization Committee (SWOC)
Gained recognition by striking against U.S. Steel. By 1937, U.S. Steel recognized the union, gave the workers a wage increase, and accepted a 40-hour week. Because of this action, many other companies began to do the same.
Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO)
John L. Lewis of the United Mine Workers and Sidney Hillman of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers established thiss in the November of 1935. This 2 million-member group welcomed all autoworkers, steelworkers, and electrical workers.
Also known as the Lame-Duck Amendment the Twentieth Amendment in 1933 called for the ending of the "lame-duck" sessions of Congress from Dec of the even numbered years until the following Mar. The amendment also set the date of the President's inauguration back to Jan 20.
Ratified within the span of 10 months, on Dec 5, 1933 repealed the eighteenth amendment (prohibition). The amendment also permitted states to levy a tax on alcoholic substances.
A Day for Every Demagogue
Although Roosevelt passed numerous measures to end the depression, unemployment and suffering continued. As a result, radical opponents to Roosevelt's New Deal began to arise.
Father Charles Coughlin's (from the right)
He used his status as a U.S. Roman Catholic "radio priest" to announce his political and economic views. He asserted anti-New Deal and ant-Semitic viewpoints. In addition, he created the magazine Social Justice which attacked Communism, Wall Street, and the Jews. Eventually, he was forced off the air.
From the "left": Senator Huey P. Long
publicized his "Share Our Wealth" program in which every family in the United States would receive $5,000. According to his rhetoric, "every man [was] a king." He was assassinated in 1935.
Schechter v. United States
This case took place in May 1935 when a New York company was charged with a violation of an NRA poultry code; these charges resulted in the Supreme Court declaring the NRA unconstitutional by stating that the NRA was regulating interstate commerce a violation of federal regulation.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
In the election of 1936, the candidates included ________________ from the Democratic Party and Alfred M. Landon from the Republican Party. The Republicans condemned the New Deal for its radicalism, experimentation, confusion, and "frightful waste" but in the end, the republican candidate won in a landslide victory. He had forged a powerful and enduring coalition of Southerners, blacks, intellectuals, urbanites, and the poor. He took the presidential oath on January 20, 1937, as outlined in the 20th amendment. In his Inaugural Address, he makes it clear that he sees his reelection as a mandate to continue and expand the New Deal reforms, in what he called a 'Second New Deal.'
Second New Deal
Created by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and expressed in his State of the Union Address in January 1935, the Second New Deal focused on and enlarged the federal program to incorporate the jobless, to help the unemployed receive jobs, to give assistance to the rural poor, organized labor, and social welfare. Roosevelt wanted to levy heavier taxes on the rich, create harder regulations on businesses, and to incorporate social-welfare benefits.
Ultraconservative justices on the _______________ thwarted several initiatives of the New Deal during FDR's first term. With his reelection, Roosevelt felt that the American people had wanted the New Deal and that the Court ought to step out of the way. If the American way of life was to be preserved, he argued, and then they should get in line with public opinion.
In a cynical move known in history as his ______________ scheme, President Roosevelt released his plan to ask Congress to pass legislation allowing him to appoint one new justice to the Supreme Court for every member over the age of 70 who would not retire; the maximum number of justices would now be 15. Shocking both Congress and the public, the plan received much negative feedback and never was implemented. However, it tainted FDR's reputation, painting him as a politician who would go to any length to push his agenda. FDR aroused conservatives of both parties in Congress, resulting in very New Deal reforms being passed after 1937. He lost much of the political goodwill that had helped him to win the election of 1936.
In Roosevelt's first term, from 1933-1937, unemployment still ran high and recovery had been relatively slow. In 1937, the economy took another downturn as new Social Security taxes began to cut into payrolls and as the Roosevelt administration cut back on spending to try and balance the budget. This was called the_________________________
World War II
Foes of the New Deal charged the president of spending too much money on his programs, significantly increasing the national debt; by 1939, the national debt was at $40,440,000,000. Some worried that lavish financial aid and relief were undermining the old virtue of initiative, and that private enterprise was being suppressed and states' rights were being ignored. The most damning indictment of the New Deal was that it did not end the depression; it merely administered "aspirin, sedatives, and Band-Aids." Not until ______________________was the unemployment problemreally solved.
On the other side, New Deal supporters had pointed out that relief, not economy, had been the primary objective of their war on the depression. Roosevelt believed that the government was _______________ bound to prevent mass hunger and starvation by "managing" the economy. FDR was a Hamiltonian in his idea of big government, but a Jeffersonian in his concern for the "forgotten man."
The two decades prior to the outbreak of hostilities in World War II were a period of increasing unrest both politically and socially in many areas of the world. Some of the issues were related to unresolved conflicts left over from World War I. Depression and out of control inflation totally destabilized Germany's government and allowed the rise to power of the Nazis, who were able to capitalize on a German sense of injustice and nationalistic frustration by blaming ________ for the country's ills.
Senator Gerald Nye
During the 1920s and 1930s, American isolationism was at its height, with many Americans reflecting back on World War I as an ill-fated mistake. A Congressional committee led by ____________ held hearings between 1934 and 1936, compiling evidence of involvement of U.S. banks and corporations in financing WWI and supplying arms and loans to the Allied nations.
merchants of death
The Nye Committee concluded that American business interest pushed the nation into war. These _______________, the committee claimed, dragged America into the conflict in order to protect millions of dollars invested in loans and weapon sales to Britain and France. The Nye Report supported a general public sentiment that America should stay out of Europe's affairs.
Neutrality Acts and cash and carry
The mid-1930s saw numerous attempts to reiterate American neutrality despite clear evidence of mounting political problems in Europe. A series of _______________were passed in 1935, 1936, and 1937, with these laws placed an embargo on exports of war materials to so-called "belligerent" nations (Germany, Italy, and Japan). It also warned U.S. citizens not to travel on belligerent vessels, prohibited loans to belligerent nations, and instituted the _________________ policy which meant that nations that were seeking to trade with the U.S. had to purchase the goods they wanted as well as provide their own vessels in which they could be shipped out to their country. Meanwhile, in Europe and Asia, aggression was clearly on the rise.
Chancellor of Germany
Hitler was elected ________________ in 1932. His message, which largely blamed "the Jews" for undermining the Jewish nation, resonated with a country looking for a scapegoat. (There were 500,000 German Jews at the time, constituting .76% of the German population.) Hitler pursed a militaristic and expansionist foreign policy, evident in his stated plan to revitalize the German military and expand German border all the way to Russia.
Nuremberg Laws 1935
Outlined separate and unequal legal status for 'Aryans' versus Jews. The laws excluded Jews from Reich citizenship, defining as Jewish any person with at least one Jewish grandparent.
This African- American track and field athlete won several gold members, publicly undermining Hitler's plan to showcase the superiority of 'Aryan' athletes on the world's stage.
Austria in March 1938
Hitler annexes ___________ in __________. The majority of Austrians do not challenge this so-called Anschluss ("link-up") of Germany and Austria.
Munich Conference September 1938
Conference between England and Germany. Neville Chamberlain, representing England, gives in to Hitler's demands on territory that Germany had lost after the end of WWI. Many people in Britain were very disappointed in Chamberlain's decision to appease Hitler and soon replaced him with Winston Churchill.
Represented England in the Munich Conference, later replaced with Winston Churchill.
Kristallnacht (November 1938)
The Nazi party undertakes a massive, violent pogrom, burning Jewish homes and vandalizing synagogues. This event was known as ________________, or "Night of Broken Glass."
Soviet Union (August 1939)
The _______________ signs a nonaggression treaty with Hitler. The Hitler-Stalin pact divided Poland into German and Russian spheres meant that Germany could make war on Poland and the Western democracies without fear of retaliation.
World War II (September 1, 1939)
Hitler militarily invades Poland, prompting Britain and France to declare war on Germany. _______________ had started.
This Italian founded the Fascist Party after being kicked out of the Socialist party in 1919. He came into power in the 1922, and by 1926, he had transformed Italy into a single-party totalitarian regime with militaristic and expansionistic aims.
1935; Mussolini invades ___________, aiming to build a worldwide empire comparable to that of other European nations.
Pact of Friendship and Alliance and Pact of Steel
Italy and Germany sign a _________________, also known as the _________________.
General Francisco Franco
The Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939 started when Spanish rebels, led by _____________________, rose against the left-wing Republican government in Madrid. Aided by Mussolini and Hitler, he undertook to overthrow the Loyalist regime, which was assisted by the Soviet Union.
The United States desperately wanted to stay out of war, with Congress amending the existing _______________ so as to apply an arms embargo to both sides.
Picasso's masterpiece, ___________, commemorates the bombing of a town in Spain by German bombers in 1937. Germany used Spain as a testing ground for the airplanes it would use again in World War II.
Emporer Hirohito and Hideki Tojo,
Like Germany and Italy, Japan was also becoming a militaristic government with expansionist dreams.________________ and ____________ military commander who planned the Pearl Harbor attacks, believed it was Japan's "manifest destiny" to be the premier power in Asia.
Japan attacked the Chinese province of ___________ and installs a puppet government.
The U.S. responded to Japan's attack on the Chinese by issuing the ________________, which stated that the U.S. would not recognize any administrative or territorial changes that Japan imposed upon China.
Japan declares war against China; China's leader, ____________________, is powerless to stop it.
President Roosevelt declined to invoke the recently passed neutrality legislation by refusing to call the ________________ an officially declared war. If he had, he would have cut off the trickle of munitions on which the Chinese were dependent. The Japanese, as a result, were able to continue to buy war supplies in the United States.
Panay and three Standard Oil ships
When the Japanese sank the marked U.S. gunboat ________________ and ________________, which were evacuating American officials from China, America did not retaliate. Japan accepted responsibilities of bombing the ships, made a formal apology and promised indemnities later set at $2 million.
Although the majority of our attention has been focused on America's response (or lack of response) to the rise of fascism in Europe and Asia, there are several other key developments in foreign policy in the 1930s. In Latin America, FDR established a ______________________ policy, renouncing armed intervention in Latin America and pulling troops out of Haiti and Panama.
Havana Conference of 1940 and Monroe Doctrine
With so many countries all falling to German control, FDR was unsure what would happen to the colonies of Latin America, and at the ________________, the United States agreed to share with its twenty New World neighbors the collective responsibility of upholding the _________________.
Although he was concerned about the rise of military aggression in Europe and Asia, Roosevelt recognized the power of the antiwar feelings demonstrated at home. In a 1937 speech, he suggested the possibility of a _______________ of aggressor nations, although he fell short of initiating the possibility of going to war.
As much as the United States publicly pledge to remain neutral, however, it also promised European democracies that they could buy American-made ______________. Overseas demand for war goods brought a sharp upswing from the recession of 1937-1938 and ultimately solved the decade-long unemployment crisis; in fact, many economists credit America's growing involvement in World War II with ending the Depression.
Netherlands and Belgium
The months following the collapse of Poland saw a quick rise in military aggression. Hitler moved on to the _________________ and _______________, and by late June 1940, France surrendered to German Occupation. When France surrendered, Americans realized that England was all that stood between Hitler controlling all of Europe.
Conscription Law, 1940
When England was all that stood between Hitler controlling Europe, Roosevelt moved with tremendous speed to call upon the nation to build huge air fleets and a two-ocean navy, with Congress approving a spending package of $37 billion. Soon Congress passed a _________________; under this measure, America's first peacetime draft was initiated-provision was made for training 1.2 million troops and 800,000 reserves each year
Battle of Britain
After taking France, Hitler launched a series of air attacks against Britain, with the _____________ raging in the air over the British Isles for months. During the Battle of Britain, radio broadcasts brought the drama from London air raids directly to America homes. Sympathy for Britain grew, but it was not yet sufficient to push the United States into war.
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
President Roosevelt faced a historic decision: whether to hunker down in the Western Hemisphere and let the rest of the world go it alone; or to bolster Britain by all means short of war itself. The ___________ __ ___________ ______________ __ ___________ ___ ________called for offering aid to Britain.
America First Committee
In response to Americas aid to Britain, the _______ _________ ________ contended that America should concentrate what strength it had to defend its own shores. Americans were deeply divided over how involved they ought to become.
In the election of 1940 the Republicans chose ____________ to run against President Roosevelt, with the Republican platform condemning both the New Deal and FDR's dictatorial leadership style. Roosevelt challenged the sacred two-term tradition when he decided that in such a grave crisis he owed his experienced hand to the service of his country, and he defended the New Deal as both constitutional and necessary. Both presidential nominees promised to strengthen the nation's defenses and stay out of war. FDR won the election, with voters expressing that his experience would be beneficial if war were to come.
Lend-Lease Bill of 1941
One of the first items on the agenda for the new Congress is a _________________, allowing for American arms to be lent or leased to the democracies of the world that needed them. The bill marked the abandonment of any pretense of neutrality. Hitler's decision to invade the Soviet Union in June 1941 also prompted the president to act. FDR immediately promised assistance and backed up his words by making some military supplies available.
With the surrender of the Soviet Union, the _____________________ was held in 1941.
eight-point Atlantic Charter
At the Atlantic Conference Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met and discussed common problems of the world, and came with the ______________________, outlining the aspirations of the democracies for a better world at the war's end.
The _______________ promised that there would be no territorial changes contrary to the wishes of the inhabitants; it affirmed the right of a people to choose their own form of government and to regain the governments abolished by the dictators; and it declared for disarmament and a peace of security, pending a new League of Nations.
Black Sunday, Pearl Harbor
Japan became allied with Germany in 1940. Soon after, Washington imposed the first of its embargoes on Japan-bound supplies and insisted that the Japanese clear out of China. Forced with the choice of succumbing to the Americans' demands, or continued conquest, the Japanese chose to fight. On ____________ December 7, 1941, Japanese bombers attacked ________________, killing 2,348 people.
Both Germany and Italy are considered ______________(historians debate whether fascism in a term that may also be applied to Japan).
______________ is defined as, "A philosophy or system of government that advocates or exercises a dictatorship, state control of industry, racial superiority, supremacy of the leader, and limits on civil rights, together with an advocacy of belligerent nationalism, militarism, and expansionism."
fascism and communism
During the 1930s and WWII, ___________, an ideology of the 'right,' was the primary threat to American democracy; after WWII, ________________, an ideology of the 'left,' was the primary threat to American democracy.
Arsenal of Democracy
After the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor in 1941 and the United States entered the war, the entire country pitched in to help the war effort. The United States proved to be the _____________________, as President Roosevelt promised, spending about $350 billion directly on the war. Americans also participated in greater numbers than any previous conflict.
16, 11, 4, 670,000, 400,000
A total of more than ___ million served in the armed forces, including ___ million soldiers, __ million sailors, and ________ marines. The army figures include the air corps, which hit a peak of 2.4 million in early 1944. Ten million of those who served were drafted. More than ______________ Americans were killed during the war, and another million wounded.
Revenue Act of 1942
Because of the expenditure on the war, Roosevelt wanted to pay for as much as possible through taxes. Although Congress refused to grant him a progressive tax, in 1942, the ______________ raised the top income-tax rate from 60% to 90% and added middle class and lower income groups to the tax bracket as well.
WWII Bond Drives
In order to finance the war and give people a sense of involvement in the war effort, _____________ were held. The treasury department sold about $40 billion "E" bonds to investors, and nearly twice the amount in higher denomination. They raised half the money for WWII.
War Production Board
In 1942, FDR announced a plan for massive war production. In order to get the necessary amount of raw materials, FDR established the _____________________. It allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civil goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers.
Office of Price Administration (OPA)
Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. They froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes.
National War Labor Board
Soon after the United States entered WWII, representatives of industry and labor organizations met with President Roosevelt and pledged to maintain maximum production levels. The government formed a ___________________ to implement the no-strike pledge and negotiate contract disputes.
John L. Lewis
Despite the National War Labor Board ____________, of the United Mine Workers threatened a strike over salary grievances.
War Labor Disputes Act
In response to labor unrest in WWII, in July 1943 Congress passed the _________________, which made it a criminal offense to provoke strikes in industries working on government contracts and authorized the seizure of companies and plants needed for the war effort. For the most part, management and labor worked relatively harmoniously in mobilizing American industrial production, half of which went to the war effort.
War Labor Board
Established in 1942, the __________________ was instituted to mediate disputes between management and labor, and sought to prevent strikes and out of control wage increases. They acted as the mediator to prevent massive strikes and wage increases that occurred with the demand for workers during WWII.
War Manpower Commission (WMC)
FDR established the ___________________ in 1942 to help supervise the mobilization of males and females in the military, and the war industry, and also to study how profit can be gained through the production of weapons and supplies during WWII.
rubber, plastics, sonar, bazooka
Scientists made key contributions to the Allied victory during WWII. Synthetic ___________, _________, and _________ were developed and new weapons were invented, including the ___________.
Sir Alexander Fleming
Penicillin, discovered by __________________, in 1929, was instrumental in saving countless lives.
_________ was utilized by all the belligerent nations, with the British leading the way for the Allies during WWII.
By far, the most significant scientific project of WWII was the development of the ______________. German scientists led the way in the field of atomic energy in the late 1930s.
____________, a Danish physicist, alerted American scientists of the military potential of the German research during their creation of the atomic bomb.
Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi
____________, a Jewish refugee, and ___________, an Italian Nobel laureate teaching at Columbia University, were among those who persuaded President Roosevelt to sponsor atomic research.
Congress eventually appropriated more than two billion dollars for the _________________, the codename for the development of the atomic bomb.
In December 1942, a team of scientists at the University of Chicago triggered the first successful chain reaction in a _____________, U-235.
Los Alamos, Robert J. Oppenheimer
In ____________________, New Mexico, ________________ assembled the scientists and engineers who built the first atomic weapon.
On July 16, 1945, in the remote sands of _________________, the atomic bomb was successfully tested. The following month, President Harry S. Truman made the decision to use atomic weapons against __________.
War Refugee Board (WRB)
FDR established the _____________ in 1943. It aimed to help rescue and assist the many people who were condemned to death camps. Although it saved 200,000 Jews and 20,000 non-Jews, many more still died.
Office of Censorship
Roosevelt wanted public opinion to be positive during the war, and in 1941, he established the ___________________ . It examined all written documents, including works of publishers and broadcasters, as well as all letters going overseas, in order to maintain the positive public opinion in America.
Office of Strategic Services
FDR and the Joint Chief of Staffs formed the ___________________, which served as an intelligence agency during WWII and was a predecessor of the CIA. It began on June 13,1942 to conduct espionage, gather intelligence information required for planning, and to analyze the enemy. Discontinued by Truman in 1945.
Japanese-born Americans and immigrants from Japan were sent to ___________________in the early 1940's because of a fear that they would leak out information about the U.S. to Japan. Most of these people were suspected of being spies for the Japanese, though there was no solid evidence to support such accusations. The captured Japanese were released in 1942, and FDR apologized to them.
During World War II, approximately __ million African-Americans moved into industrial jobs, with 1.6 million Black Americans leaving the South for the North.
battalions, Tuskegee Airmen
Approximately 700,000 African-Americans served during WWII, including half a million overseas. There were two black combat divisions, some separate support _____________, and a renowned fighter group—the ___________. Throughout the war, African-American servicemen remained strictly segregated.
discrimination and Double V
In general, African-Americans saw themselves as fighting two battles: one against America's enemies abroad and the other against _________________ at home. In 1941, the black press championed the ___________ campaign, calling for victory over fascism abroad and victory over discrimination at home. Lapel pins, stickers, even hairstyles for this campaign, were all extremely popular.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
In 1942, this organization was formed to fight segregation and racial discrimination. It served as one of the most important social justice organizations of the Civil Rights Movement.
Approximately 25,000 _____________________ served in the armed forces, and many saw combat in Europe and the Pacific.
During WWII some Indians, including _____________ in Europe and ______________ in the Pacific, made important contributions as "code talkers" who transmitted radio messages in their native languages.
Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (Wacs)
During WWII some 333,000 women enlisted, about a third of them in the _______________________.
Waves and Spars
During WWII women in the other branches were known as _______(Navy) and ______ (Coast Guard). Women were officially employed in non-combat roles but many of them—especially nurses and pilots who ferried planes to the theaters of war—found themselves in dangerous situations.
Rosie the Riveter
At home, ________________ is the iconic female figure. With her bulging arms muscles and can-do attitude, she embodies the generation of women who manned the factories while the men went off to fight. Although women returned to the domestic sphere following World War II, their work experience laid the foundation for the modern feminist movement.
Serviceman Readjustment Act
In 1944, Congress passes the GI Bill, also known as the ________________________, which sets aside $13 Billion in benefits for veterans, including money for college education and low-cost mortgages. This bill is credited with democratizing educations and helping to create the modern middle class.
Shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Churchill crossed the Atlantic to meet with Roosevelt at the ________________ and discuss military strategy. They emphasized the "Germany First" plan, emphasizing that the defeat of the Germans, even before the Italians or Japanese are defeated, is the top priority.
In mid-January 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill met at this conference in Morocco. They pledged there would be no separate peace negotiations with Hitler, and that the war would be fought until the "unconditional surrender" of the Axis powers.
Cairo Declaration, 1943
Later that same year, President Roosevelt traveled to Egypt to join Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek in signing the _________________ Declaration. The Allied leaders reiterated their pledge to continue the war in the Pacific until the "unconditional surrender" of Japan.
1943; Immediately following the Cairo Conference, Roosevelt and Churchill then flew to Tehran, the Iranian capital, to meet for the first time with Stalin. The __________________ Conference gave the Allied leaders a chance to size each other up in person. Both military and political issues were discussed by the Big Three, including "Operation Overlord," the codename for the cross-channel invasion (D-Day) to be launched in the spring.
1944; after the cross-channel invasion in Normandy put the Germans on the defensive in Western Europe, Allied diplomats began a six-week conference at ______________, an estate near Washington, D.C.
The negotiations included representatives from the US, Britain, the Soviet Union, and China. It resulted in a working draft for the United Nations. The post-war peace organization would consist of a Security Council, General Assembly, Secretariat, and an International Court of Justice. It was agreed that the Four Policemen and France would have permanent seats on the Security Council, and each have a veto power.
1945; Name of the final summit meeting attended by the Big Three was held in early February 1945, at Yalta on the Black Sea. The war against Hitler was entering its final stages, with the Allies closing in on Germany and the Red Army controlling much of Eastern Europe.
Among the major issues settled at Yalta by the Big Three were the partition of Germany and future war reparations. It was agreed that Germany was to be divided into _________ of occupation, with a French sector carved out of the British and American zones. Berlin also was divided into four zones, although the city was wholly within the Soviet sector.
The fate of his country was the most difficult problem faced by the Allied leaders at Yalta. Stalin made it clear that the issue was "a matter of life and death for the Soviet Union." Roosevelt and Churchill conceded and acknowledged temporary communist domination of their government, although the USSR promised that Poland would hold free and fair elections soon.
In light of the ensuing _____________, the post-war agreements negotiated by the Big Three remain historically controversial. Some historians equate Yalta with Munich and appeasement; others blame Roosevelt's deteriorating health for his failure to take a hard enough line against Stalin. Most of the settlements reached at Yalta—especially those pertaining to Eastern Europe—employed language vague enough to allow the Soviets to violate the spirit if not the letter of the agreements.
This new president had been vice president for less than three months and was trained in foreign affairs when he entered the White House.
1945; Truman represented the United States at this conference, which followed the surrender of Germany in early May 1945. On the first day of the conference, President Truman received a report of the successful testing of the atomic bomb.
On July 26, Truman, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-shek signed the _____________________, which repeated the call for the unconditional surrender of Japan. Stalin did not participate because the Soviets were not yet a belligerent in the Pacific war. Without mentioning the atomic bomb, the Declaration warned that the "alternative [to surrender] for Japan is prompt and utter destruction."
On August 6, 1945, four days after the Potsdam Conference ended, the ___________, a B-29 bomber, dropped a five-ton bomb was released over Hiroshima, Japan's eighth largest city and headquarters for the Second General Army. Three days later, Nagasaki was virtually destroyed by the second atom bomb and another 35,000 were killed.
Between the two bombs, precisely three months after Germany's surrender, the ____________ declared war on Japan and marched troops into Manchuria. The formal Japanese surrender took place on September 2, aboard the battleship Missouri. General Douglas MacArthur presided over the ceremonies.
The dropping of the __________ ushered in a new age of post-war moral ambiguity. The war was over, but the nuclear age had begun.
President Truman's decision to drop the atomic bombs immediately drew mixed reactions. Critics argued that he should have pursued other military options, including waiting for the Soviet Union to join the fight and implementing a ___________ of the home islands. Others claimed Truman should have demonstrated to Japanese observers the destructive force of the new weapon in a staged exhibition on a remote target.
Supporters of the president's decision to drop the bombs argued that the alternatives were ____________. Japanese hardliners would never surrender as long as they could resist, as evidenced by the kamikaze tactics employed late in the war. Additionally, there was only enough material to build two bombs, and a demonstration might not work as planned. Ultimately, an invasion of the home islands would be launched with a horrific loss of life on both sides.
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