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human development midterm
Terms in this set (51)
In an experiment, the independent variable...
is the one investigator expects to cause changes in another variable.
Although great diversity characterizes the interests and concerns of investigators who study development, they share a single goal: to identify...
Those factors that influence consistencies and transformations in people from conception to death.
Vygotsky's emphasis on culture and social experience led him to...
Neglect the biological side of development
Lilian uses flowcharts to map the precise steps individuals use to solve problems and complete tasks. Lilian is a(n) __________ theorist.
______ theory was the first to stress the influence of the early parent-child relationship on development
Our ______ determines our species and influences all our unique characteristics
True or false: some mutations occur spontaneously, simply by chance.
Emilia and Andrew praise and stimulate their children and they mutually support each other's parenting behaviors. Amelia and Andrew engage in effective...
The united states is more ________ than most western European countries, which place greater weight on ______
biochemical process triggered by certain experiences, in which a set of chemical compounds, called a methyl group, lands on top of a gene and changes its impact, reducing or silencing its expression (changes to the phenotype without changes to the genotype)
True or False: compared to a shorter leave, a childbirth leave of 12 week or more predicts favorable maternal physical and mental health, supportive marital interaction, and sensitive careiving.
The ectoderm becomes the
Nervouse system and skin
any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
Recent evidence suggests that paternal alcohol use around the time of conception can cause....
alteration to the gene expression
a pregnant mother is concerened about drinking unhealthy eater, that show high levels of lead. High levels of prenatal lead exposure is related to...
low birth weight and brain damage
measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors
comparison of the characteristics of family members
differences resulting from individuals' genetic makeup in their responsiveness to qualities of the environment
the ways in which our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed
tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity
development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment. (changing a phenotype without changing a genotype)
True or false: Fertilization usually takes place in the fallopian tube.
True or false: As many as 50 percent of zygotes do not survive the first two weeks.
False: it is less than 50%
True or false: during the period of the fetus, the groundwork is laid for all body structures and internal organs.
False: It is during the period of the embryo
True or false: During the last half of the first month of pregnancy, the nervous system develops fastest.
True or false: In the second month of pregnancy, the eyes, ears, nose, jaw and neck form
True or false: the period of the fetus is the longest prenatal period
True or false: brain weight doubles from the twentieth week until birth
False: the brain weight ten folds (grows at a larger weight than doubling)
According to cognitive-developmental theory, a scheme is __________.
an organized way of making sense of experience
Jenny is considering choosing not to immunize her newborn son due to a suggested link between a mercury-based preservative used in vaccines and autism. Jenny should know that large-scale studies show __________ association with autism.
According to Erikson, a healthy outcome during infancy depends on the __________.
quality of caregiving
When caregiver‒infant communication is seriously disrupted, infant __________ is common—a condition that impairs all aspects of development.
Four-year-old Erin is a picky eater. How can Erin's parents encourage her to eat a new food?
Repeatedly expose her to the new food without any direct pressure to eat it.
True or false; neurons store and transmit information
What is the American Association of Pediatricians' recommendation for media use under age 18 months?
No media use at all with the exception of interactive video chatting
True or false: paternal depression is linked to frequent father-child conflict as children grow older
The best estimate of a child's physical maturity is __________.
Baby Olivia dropped her rattle. Later, she let go of her teething ring and watched with interest. When Olivia dropped objects, she was __________ them to her sensorimotor dropping scheme. (accommodating or assimilating)
Dr. Sardoza is interested in research on the organization and interpretation of what we see. Dr. Sardoza studies __________.
Nine-month-old Avery can retrieve his ball when his mother hides it under a blanket. Avery has begun to master __________.
According to the __________ of motor development, mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action.
dynamic systems theory
Chapter 1: Anna, a high school counselor, devised a program that integrates classroom learning with vocational training to help adolescents at risk for school dropout stay in school and transition to work life. What is Anna's position on stability versus plasticity in development? Explain.
Chapter 4: Explain how either too little or too much stimulation can impair cognitive and emotional development in the early years.
Chapter 5: When Timmy was 18 months old, his mother stood behind him, helping him throw a large ball into a box. As his skill improved, she stepped back, letting him try on his own. Using Vygotsky's ideas, explain how Timmy's mother is supporting his cognitive development.
She is helping him understand and carry-out the action of throwing the ball by himself, otherwise he couldn't do it on his own (inaccessible)
Chapter 6: Mandy and Jeff are parents of 2-year-old inhibited Sam and 3-year-old difficult Maria.
Explain the importance of effortful control to Mandy and Jeff, and suggest ways they can strengthen it in each of their children
Chapter 7: Tanisha sees her 5 year old son, Toby, talking aloud to himself as he plays. She wonders whether she should discourage this behavior. How would you advise Tanisha?
This is seen as private speech, which is not a bad thing. He is supporting and directing himself through difficult tasks which is recommended from research.
Chapter 8: What is inductive discipline? what child-rearing style best correlates with this?
When an adult helps the child understand why their actions were not desirable because the impact it has on someone else. Authoritative; supports firm yet reasonable control.
Chapter 9: How will bilingual learning help support minorities cognitively and academically?
Cognitively: they will have a better understanding of the concepts and will be less frustrated
Academically: they will most likely be able to get a passing grade, and there will be less of a drop out rate in the future.
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