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Ch. 3 Chemistry
Terms in this set (40)
What are the 5 statements of Dalton's Atomic Theory?
1. all matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms
2. atoms are identical in size, mass & other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass & other properties
3. atoms cannot be subdivided, created or destroyed
4. atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds
5. in chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated or rearranged
What parts of Dalton's Atomic Theory have been proven to be incorrect?
atoms are divisible into even smaller particles
Any sample of NaCl has a 1:1 proportion of sodium to chloride. This is an example of which law?
law of definite proportions
Both methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6) are composed of carbon and hydrogen. The ratio of carbon to hydrogen for methane is 1:4 while the ratio for ethane is 2:6. This is an example of which law?
law of multiple proportions
Chemical equations have to be balanced in order to obey which law?
law of conservation of mass
What are nuclear forces?
forces that hold the nuclear particles together
What are the nuclear forces?
proton-neutron, proton-proton & neutron-neutron
Who was responsible for the particle theory of matter?
He did not believe in atoms and thought all matter was continuous.
Was there experimental evidence to back up the views of Democritus or Aristotle?
T or F: Elements combine to form compounds that have different physical and chemical properties than those of the elements that form them.
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is neither created or destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes
Law of Definite Proportions
A chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound
Law of Multiple Proportions
if two or more different compounds are composed of the same elements, then the ratio of the masses of those elements is always a ratio of small whole numbers
He deduced that elements were composed of atoms and that only whole numbers of atoms can combine to form compounds.
Who turned Democritus' idea into a hypothesis?
Can a given element have atoms with different masses?
The Modern Atomic Theory is a modification of _______ _______ _________.
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Protons, neutrons, and electrons are called _________ _________.
What was used to conduct the experiments that investigated the relationship between electricity and matter?
Cathode ray tubes
A very small nucleus with a positive charge with electrons surrounding it like planets surround the sun.
Negative electrons are spread evenly throughout the positive charge of the rest of the atom.
"plum pudding" model
T or F: Atoms are not neutral.
T or F: The nucleus of an atom is very unstable.
Why can't atoms be measured individually?
they are too small
What are the three different types of Hydrogen atoms?
Protium, Deuterium &Tritium
Which is the most common type of hydrogen atom?
What is an atom's identity given by?
its number of protons
What is an isotope's identity given by?
its number of protons and neutrons
T or F: The mass number is the mass of the atom.
What is the mass number?
the number of protons & neutrons in the nucleus
What are the two different ways of specifying isotopes?
Hyphen notation & Nuclear symbol
General term for a specific isotope of an element
What is the standard used by scientists to compare units of atomic mass?
the actual mass of the atom
a collection of a specific number of atoms
the number of particles in a mole of a pure substance
The mass of one mole of a pure substance
What unit is molar mass written in?
T or F: Molar mass is numerically equal to atomic mass
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