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From the text book Sociology: a down to earth approach .

Violation of norms and rules that are written into law are called:


The concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following?

It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.

Why did the XYY chromosome theory fall out of favor as an explanation for criminal behavior?

Most criminals do not have XYY and everyone with XYY is not a criminal.

Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose American presence in the Mideast and are considered heroic warriors. The bestowing of honor and praise are:

Positive sanctions

What is a group's formal and informal means of enforcing norms called?

Social control

Sociologists emphasizing which sociological perspective would consider deviance as a natural part of society?


According to control theory, when are inner controls most effective in deterring deviant behavior?

In the presence of strong attatchments, commitments, and involvemment with other membvers of society.

The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ______ theory


In an effort to resist the label of "deviant," most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as:

Techniques of neutralization

John desires the best things in life..a fast car, designer clothes, and membership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered that he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inncer city. How would Merton classify John?

An innovator

Based on Merton's typologies, what do drug addicts, the homeless, and nuns living in a convent, and monks living in a monastery have in common?

they are all retreatists

matthew and Ryan are devout christian fundamentalists and believe that homosexuality is against god's will and that homosexuals deserve to be punished. They spend a couple evenings each week in gay bashing activities that include physical violence and verbal assaults. Based on their rationalization, which technique of neutralization is most applicable for Matthew and Ryan to maintain a positive self image?

Denial of victim

The theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them is ____ theory


Sociologists who view law as an instrument of oppression and use it to control workers, are aligned with which sociological perspective?

The conflict perspective

According to sociologist martin Jankowski, boys in urban areas are motivated to join gangs for a number of reasons. Which of the following reasons least qualifies as one of the reasons Jankowski listed for why urban youth join gangs?

To escape broken homes

The crime with the highest increase among women between 1992 and 2004 was:

Car theft

Based on 2007 edition of Statistical Abstracts, the state with the lowest rate of violent crimes in America is ____ while the state with the highest rate of violent crime is______.

Maine; South Carolina

How would conflict theorists classify migrant workers, seasonal employees, and members of the workforce who are subject to layoffs?

marginal working class

conflict theorists classify the few who own means of production as _____ and those who sell their labor as ______.

capitalists; the working class

How a society treats its deviants is one measure of how humane it is. What would an examination of prisons and mental hospitals in the U.S. suggest regarding this standard?

They are both used as warehouses for the unwanted

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