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Bio exam 1
Terms in this set (15)
Name the steps in the scientific method
-1. Initial observation
-2. Literature review
-3. Construct a hypothesis
-4. Testing hypothesis with an experiment
-5. Procedure Working?
-6. Analyze data and draw conclusions
Describe each step, Name and describe five considerations in an experiment (treatment, control, replication, randomization, blind design).
Explain how each makes the experiment more likely to show a causal relationship and how each prevents experimenter error.
Give an example of an experiment and describe how each of these considerations are addressed in the experiment.
-1. Treatment- part of the experiment that does change.
-2. Control- part of the experiment that does not change.
-3. Replication- repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated.
-4. Randomization- choose your experimental participants randomly
-5. Blind design- some of the people involved are prevented from knowing certain information that might lead to conscious or subconscious bias on their part, thus invalidating the results.
-Each of these are likely to show a causal relationship and prevents experimenter error because it prevents bias (randomization), blind design, replication, a control and experimental(treatment) group.
Describe the eight properties of life discussed in class
-1. Organic Composition
-3. Response to Environment
-8. Energy Use
Name, draw, and label four types of macromolecules. Explain the functions of each within cells.
-structure, chemical energy, building blocks for other monomers
-enzymes, structure, movement, regulate cellular functions
-structurally & functionally diverse, hydrophobic, subclasses(fats, phospholipids,steroids)
Describe the six parts of cell theory.
1. All living things are made up of cells
2. Basic structural/functional unit
3. All cells come from cells
4. Cells pass on hereditary information
5. Cells are similar in chemical composition
6. All energy flow of life occurs in cells
Draw and describe the fluid mosaic model of plasma membranes. Label each component and describe what it does. Why is called a fluid mosaic?
-bc mosaics have different shaped pieces that fit together= fluid mosaic
Using a drawing, name and describe five ways for a solute to get through a plasma membrane. Which of these are active and which are passive? What do active and passive mean in terms of membrane transport?
1. Facilitated transport-material moves across the plasma membrane with the assistance of transmembrane proteins down a concentration gradient (from high to low concentration=passive)
2. Osmosis- diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane according to the concentration gradient of water across the membrane(passive)
3. Diffusion- single substance tends to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until the concentration is equal across the space(passive)
4. Endocytosis -methods that require the direct use of ATP to fuel the transport of large particles such as macromolecules(active)
5. exocytosis- cell expels waste and other particles through the reverse process(active)
Which of the following is not a property shared by all forms of life:
a. Response to environment
b. Composed of many cells
d. Energy use
Which of the following is generally considered a requirement for an acceptable scientific source: a. Primary b. Peer reviewed c. Unbiased d. All of the above
What is the name for a shortened scientific experiment that is used to test whether a longer scientific experiment will work and also used to design the longer experiment:
a. Feasibility study
b. Observational study
c. Blind study
d. Pilot study
e. All of the above
Which of the following elements is considered one of the most important for all living things:a. Helium b. Bromine c. Carbon d. Argon e. All of the above
Which of the following is not a major group of macromolecules:
d. Nucleic acids
e. None of the above
Which of the following is part of the endomembrane system:
b. Golgi apparatus
Which type organism is made up mostly of cells that do not have a cell wall?
e. None of the above
Draw and label all the part of the endomembrane system. Describe how it functions.
The system is defined more accurately as the set of membranes that form a single functional and developmental unit, either being connected directly, or exchanging material through vesicle transport. Importantly, the endomembrane system does not include the membranes of chloroplasts or mitochondria, but might have evolved from the latter
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