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64 terms

Human Geo-Population Vocab

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demographers
study population
natural increase
birthrate - deathrate
Census
a complete enumeration of a population, An official numbering of the people of a country or district
Epidemiologic transition
distinctive causes of eath in each stage of the demographic transition
Ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Industrial Revolution
a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufactoring goods
Infant Mortality Rate
the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1,000 live births
Life expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Medical Revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Age cohort
A group of people with a similar age.
Agricultural density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Agricultural revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and on longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
Anti-natalist
Concerned with limiting population growth.
Pro-natalist
Concerned with promoting population growth.
Arithmetic density (population density)
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Census
A complete enumeration of a population.
Contraception
Deliberate prevention of conception or impregnation.
Crude death rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude birth rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Demographic transition
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Demography
The scientific study of population characteristics.
Dependency ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
Doubling time
The amount of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. 70 diviede by %
Ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Non-ecumene
The uninhabited or uninhabitable area of the world.
Epidemiologic transition
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Epidemiology
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Infant mortality rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Life expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Medical revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Natural increase rate (NIR/RNI)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Overpopulation
The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Physiological density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Population agglomeration
A cluster of people living in the same area.
Population pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Replacement fertility
The total fertility rate at which women would have only enough children to replace themselves and their partner.
Sex ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Total fertility rate (TFR)
The average number of children a women will have throughout her childbearing years.
Zero population growth (ZPG)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Demographic regions
Cape Verde is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark is in Stage 4 (Low Growth). This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition.
Natality
the birth rate
Population Distributions
the arrangement of a feature in space is distribution. Geographers identify the three main properties as density, concentration, and pattern
density
Material in a given space
concentration
The spread of something over a given area.
Thomas Malthus
predicted that population would out pace the food supply
Age Distribution
(Population pyramid) is two back-to-back bar graphs, one showing the number of males and one showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups. This is important because you can tell from the age distribution important characteristic of a country, whether high guest worker population, they just had a war or a deadly disease and more.
standard of living
measure of quality of life based on the amounts and kinds of goods and services a person can buy.
diffusion of fertility control
The diffusion of fertility control is spread throughout the world. In the U.S it's below 2.1 in much of Africa it is above 4, if South America is between 2 and 3, in Europe it is below 2.1, in China and Russia it is below 2.1, and in much of the Middle East it is above 4. This is important because its shows how many kids a mother is having thus helping to see where the countries are growing rapidly and where countries are leveling off
disease diffusion
two types: hierachal, contagious ; determines how the disease spread so you can predict how it will spread.
contagious
spread through the density of people
Hierachical
along high density areas that spread from urban to rural
Maladaptation
Which shows as the world changes so do the things surrounding it
Sustainability
The ability to keep in existence or maintain. A sustainable ecosystem is one that can be maintained
Demographic Equation
finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in.
J-curve
expodential, not yeat reached carrying capacity
S-Curve
logistic, show affect of limiting factor (envirments carrying capacity)
carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Population Projection
a statement of a population's future size, age, and sex composition based on the application of stated assumptions to current data
Demographic Momentum
this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
per captia income
average amount of money earned per person
panadamic
a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area that affects a very high porption of the population
evolution
infectious diseases evolove and change in response to drugs and become resitant to drugs and inscides (ex mosquitos and deet)