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Review: Ottoman and Ming Examination
Terms in this set (44)
It was the imperial palace in the heart of the capital, Beijing. Built by the Ming emperors, it was home to the emperors of China. Ordinary people were not allowed in it.
It was one of China's finest exports and it was desired all over the world. It was highly prized. These ceramics dishes and cups were often glazed with blue and white designs.
This great Chinese explorer of the Ming Dynasty traveled from 1405 to 1433. He made seven voyages in the Indian Ocean Basin. He traveled to Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Arabia, and East Africa.
Indian Ocean Trade
It connected Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Arabia and East Africa. It was conducted by boats and ships. Many goods were exchanged. The monsoon winds helped navigators.
Why the Voyages of Zheng He ended?
Confucian scholars considered exploration a waste of resources. The outside world had nothing of value. The greater threat was nomadic invaders on China's borders.
It was the Chinese belief that China was the center of the world and superior to other empires. It was an ethnocentric attitude. The Chinese believed that the outside world had nothing of value.
These Asian empires used gunpowder and the latest military technology to expand their territories and conquer lands. The Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal and Tokugawa were these kinds of empires.
It is a time of great change. When the voyages of Zheng He ended, it was a time of great change in China. The Chinese turned increasingly inward and towards isolationism.
Location of the Ottoman Empire
It was between Europe and Asia. It controlled land in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. It was on the crossroads between Europe and Asia. It had a great location for trade.
Territories of the Ottoman Empire
The Balkans were included. This is a peninsula in southeastern Europe. Egypt in North Africa was part of it. Lands in Eastern Europe, the Middle East (Southwest Asia), and Africa were part of the empire.
It is a recording of the population. It records how many people live in the empire or nation. It helped the Ming rulers ensure that tax collection was accurate.
Capture of Constantinople
In 1453, the Ottoman sultan - Mehmed II - conquered the Byzantine Empire. They took control of the capital of the Byzantine Empire. They took control of this city.
These were the elite soldiers of the Ottoman Empire. These soldiers were part of the Devshirme System or the gathering of Christian boys. Some of these boys became highly skilled soldiers in the empire.
Focusing on Internal Affairs in China
After the ending of the voyages of Zheng He, the Chinese did this. They turned their attention inward to focus on China and its borders. They felt the outside world had little of value.
Islamic and Turkish
These are the characteristics of the Ottoman Empire. It was a Muslim Empire adhering to the ideas of the Five Pillars. It was also this ethnicity. It was founded by these nomadic invaders.
Southwestern Asia to Eastern Europe to Northern Africa
These are the lands that were included in the Ottoman Empire. It was a vast empire that spanned three continents.
Exploration and Trade and Diffusion
The voyages of Zheng He led to increase contacts with other lands and the increased exchange of goods. It allowed for the spread of goods but also the spread of cultural ideas.
Crossroads of Europe and Asia
It is the intersection of two roads but it is also used as a term in history to describe where two continents or two regions meet. The Ottoman Empire was this.
Egypt is part of this region. This region was also part of the Ottoman Empire.
Suleiman the Magnificent
He was the most significant sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He conquered land and extended the empire to its greatest extent. He conquered land even in Eastern Europe.
Islam and the Balkans
This peninsula in southeastern Europe was part of the Ottoman Empire and although many people in this region were Christians, a good number converted to the religion of the Ottomans.
This was the capital of the Byzantine Empire. It was conquered by the Ottomans in 1453. It was renamed Istanbul.
Zheng He's Seven Voyages
This great Chinese explorer took this number of trips and traveled to Southeast Asia, Indian subcontinent, Arabia, and East Africa. He established a tribute system and even brought a giraffe back to the Beijing zoo.
Corn and Peanuts
These new crops from the Americas were introduced to China by the Europeans. These crops were highly caloric and increased population. It was one result of contact between Europe and Asia.
Eastern Mediterranean Basin
The Ottomans controlled this part of this very important sea. It is where the Silk Roads ended. It was a very profitable region. It connected three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. Wealth through trade greatly benefited the Ottoman Empire.
Suleiman the Lawgiver
This Ottoman sultan created a just law code and a more efficient government. This allowed the empire to function more effectively and is one reason for his being known as this.
It means the gathering or the collecting. It is the gathering of a certain number of Christian boys. These boys were given to the Ottoman sultan and became the personal slaves of the Ottoman sultan. Some of these boys were trained as elite soldiers or Janissaries. Other boys became bureaucrats and worked as government officials.
It was the policy of religious toleration in the Ottoman Empire. It recognized the rights of Jews and Christians to freely practice their religions in their villages. Yes, these religious minorities in the empire had to pay a special tax or jizya but they had religious freedom.
Expanding Trade with Africa and Southeast Asia
Clearly, Zheng He did this. By traveling throughout the Indian Ocean Basin, Zheng He established relationships with diverse lands and exchanges of goods occurred with these regions.
This Ming emperor sponsored the voyages of Zheng He. He rewarded his friend with an impressive fleet of ships, the largest ship being the Treasure Ship.
This critical date in history is the date when the Ottomans conquered Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul thereby changing world history.
Dominating the Eastern Mediterranean Sea
By virtue of the location of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottomans were able to do this. They were able to control this part of this very important body of water and thereby control trade in this basin.
Little Value in Exploration
After the death of Emperor Yongle, the patron of Zheng He, the Chinese government ended the overseas voyages and ended overseas exploration. They did so for this reason. China was the Middle Kingdom, clearly superior in their eyes.
Siege of Vienna
It was a failed attempt to surround this Austrian city and force it into surrender by cutting off supplies to the city inhabitants. The Ottomans failed. It is believed that the cold winter was too much for them.
Conquered Egypt and Syria
In North Africa, the Ottomans conquered this. In the Middle East, the Ottomans conquered this too.
Overthrew Foreign Rulers
This is true of the Ming Dynasty. The founder of the Ming Dynasty overthrew the Mongol rulers of China or the Yuan Dynasty.
Turks, Arabs, Greeks, Muslims, Christians and Jews lived in the Ottoman Empire. There were different religions and different ethnicities in the Ottoman Empire. It was this kind of Empire.
It is what Zheng He collected. It is often things of value that a weaker kingdom gives to a militarily stronger kingdom to show its submissiveness.
Defeated Byzantine Empire
This former Eastern Roman Empire survived for one thousand years after the fall of Rome but it experienced this at the hands of Ottoman soldiers. The Ottomans did this.
This is what the Ottomans had. They were between Europe and Asia. They had this advantage.
Map of Zheng He's Voyages
This is really important if you want to know where the great Chinese explorer went. It will show you the routes and the destinations.
Contact with Other Cultures
From 1405 to 1433, Zheng He did this. He traveled to many lands and met new peoples. He met the Southeast Asians, Indians, Arabs and Africans. He learned new ideas and purchased new goods.
It was one outcome of the voyages of Zheng He. It allowed for the Chinese to exchange goods with Southeast Asians, Indians, Arabs, and Africans.
Demonstrated Chinese Supremacy
It is what the Chinese Tribute System did. It was a way for other kingdoms to acknowledge China's advances and high status.
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