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Chapter 11 | Key Issue 3 Test
Terms in this set (89)
The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits
The amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist
The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy
Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium
A source of energy that has a finite supply capable of being exhausted
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by people
Energy from steam or hot water produced by hot or molten underground rocks
Passive Solar Energy Systems
Solar energy systems that collect energy without the use of mechanical devices
Active Solar Energy Systems
Solar radiation captured with photovoltaic cells that convert light energy to electrical energy
What are the three fossil fuels?
Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gas
Where is coal formed?
Tropical, swampy locations
Why did coal move to the mid-latitudes?
Who are the two leading producers of coal (in order)?
China, the US
Where is petroleum formed?
On the seafloor (countries that used to be underwater have it underground)
Who are the three leading producers of petroleum (in order)?
Russia, Saudi Arabia, and the United States
Where is natural gas formed?
On the seafloor from sediment
Who are the two leading producers of natural gas (in order)?
The United States and Russia
Who is the leader in energy demand?
In recent years, what has happened to demand for fossil fuels?
Developing countries have started demanding more
What fossil fuels are used in industries (with percents)?
40% Natural Gas, 30% Coal, 30% Petroleum
How are natural gas and petroleum used in industry?
Usually burned directly
How is coal used in industry?
Consumed through the purchase of energy
What is almost all transportation run on?
What is natural gas used for in homes?
Heating and air conditioning
What is coal used for in homes?
Primary source of energy
How is energy used commercially?
Same as homes
Where is petroleum primarily produced?
MENA and Central Asia
When was it determined that importing petroleum was cheaper than producing it in the US?
What percent of total petroleum in the US was imported in 1995?
What percent of total petroleum in the US was imported in 2005?
What percent of total petroleum in the US was imported in 2014?
What organization was formed to give more control to oil producing countries?
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
When was the OPEC formed?
When did oil prices reach record high prices and what did it contribute to?
2008, a severe global recession
The United States pays ___ prices for petroleum when compared to other developed countries
About what percent of fossil fuels do developing countries consume?
What are proven natural gas reserves at?
7,000 quad BTUs
What are proven coal reserves at?
23,000 quad BTUs
How long would proven coal reserves last with current demand?
Where are most coal reserves?
Russia and China
How long would proven natural gas reserves last at current demand?
What are proven petroleum reserves at?
10,000 quad BTUs
How long would proven petroleum reserves last at current demand?
What percent of proven petroleum reserves do developing countries have?
Why is it harder to convert potential reserves today than it was in the past?
Typically in remote areas, most fossil fuel fields already exploited
What unconventional resource can be found in Alberta, Canada, Venezuela, and Russia?
What unconventional resource is prevalent in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Appalachian Mountains?
Hydraulic fracturing (fracking)
Developed countries demand ___ fossil fuels than they produce
What two countries export the most petroleum to the United States?
Canada and Saudi Arabia
What policy makes car manufacturers improve their miles per gallon?
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)
What percent of the world's electricity comes from nuclear power?
Where is nuclear energy primarily produced?
Developed countries (Europe and North America)
What percent of France's electricity comes from nuclear power?
What is demand for nuclear energy like in the United States?
Varies between states
What is the primary cause of concern for nuclear energy?
What are two examples of runaway reactions?
Chernobyl (1956) and Fukushima Daiichi
What issue has arisen with waste products of nuclear energy?
No permanent storage
When was nuclear energy used in warfare?
Hiroshima and Nagasaki (ended World War II)
What are issues that come with nuclear energy?
Radioactive waste, bomb material, limited reserves, and high cost
How is nuclear energy produced?
Fusion and fission
What is hydroelectric power?
Electricity from the movement of water
What country is heavily dependent on hydroelectric power?
What is biomass energy?
Energy produced by burning plant material and animal waste
What are the two energy sources of biomass energy?
Wood and crops
Why can biomass energy be inefficient?
The energy put into producing crops can equal the energy released from burning them
What country uses biomass extensively to fuel motor vehicles?
What three regions make up 90% of wind power production?
China, North America, and Europe
Why has wind power received opposition?
Noisy, can kill birds and bats, eyesore
What is geothermal energy?
Energy from hot water or steam
Where is geothermal energy most feasible?
Where plates meet
Who are the three leading producers of geothermal energy?
The United States, the Philippines, and Indonesia
What energy source heats almost every home and business in the capital of Iceland?
What is the ultimate renewable energy source?
What percent of electricity comes from solar in the US?
What are some examples of passive solar energy systems?
South-facing windows and dark surfaces for heat and light in buildings
What is a practical example of a passive solar energy system?
Human wearing darker clothing gets warmed up more
In recent times, what significant advancements have been made in glass technology for passive solar energy systems?
Double and triple paneled windows, low emittance (Low-E) windows (let heat in, not out)
What invention was critical for active solar energy systems?
How do photovoltaic cells work with silicon?
Electrons get excited by the sun and pass through silicon to produce heat and electricity
Who invented the photovoltaic cell?
Bell Laboratories (1954)
What does direct electric conversion do with the sun's rays?
Collects energy and converts it to heat or electricity
What does indirect electric conversion do with the sun's rays?
Converts it to heat, then electricity
What happens during indirect electric conversion?
Rays are absorbed by reflectors to a pipe filled with synthetic oil. The heat generates steam that can be harnessed as electricity.
How is heat converted in indirect electric conversion?
Reflectors bounce to water or rocks that accumulate heat stored in large containers for later
Why has solar energy not gained traction?
Significant investments in nuclear energy, coal is cheaper
What is solar energy used for in developed countries?
Spacecraft, calculators, remote sites (electricity not readily available), solar water heaters, electric cars, hybrid cars
How many people do not have electricity in developing countries?
What is an example of solar energy being used in developing countries?
In sub-Saharan Africa, more homes harness solar energy than energy from a central power grid
What improvements must be made to solar energy in order for it to gain traction in the future?
Increase efficiency, lower price
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