bio chapter 15 vocab

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anaphase
the third stage in mitosis; sister chromatids separate and become single-stranded chromosomes
asexual reproduction
reproduction that involves only one parent
benign
causing no bodily damage
binary fission
division of a parent cell into two daughter cells
budding
a form of asexual reproduction where an offspring grows out of the side of the parent
carcinogens
a chemical that increases the chance of developing cancer
cell cycle
the series of events that occurs in the lifetime of a cell
cell plate
a structure that divides a plant cell at the end of mitosis and becomes part of the new cell walls
centrioles
the organelles that help guide cell division
centromere
the part of a chromosome that joins the chromatids together
chromatids
one strand of DNA; after prelication, a chromosome is made up of two identical chromatids attached by a centromere
chromosomes
a structure, composed of DNA, that contains the genetic material
cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm and organelles of one parent cell into two daughter cells
DNA
the hereditary material of all organisms, which contains the instructions for all cellular activities
interphase
period before cell division during which DNA replication occurs
replication
the duplication of DNA during cell division
malignant
causing bodily damage; often refers to a cancerous tumor
metaphase
the second stage in mitosis; chromosomes line up along the center of the cell
metastasis
the spread of cancer when parts of a tumor break off and move to new sites in the body
mitosis
the division of ones cell's nucleus into two identical daughter cell nuclei
prophase
the first stage of mitosis; the nuclear membrane breaks down
regeneration
the process of regrowing organs or a whole organism from a part of the organism
reproduction
the production of offspring, by either sexual or asexual means
spindle
fibers that are formed during mitosis that help separate the chromatids
telophase
the fourth and final stage of mitosis; when a new nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes
tumor
a mass of cells that grows (divides) without restraint; often cancerous