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19 terms

Endocrine System

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Function of endocrine system
Chemical control center of the body works closely with the nervous system
Endocrine glands
secrete chemicals called hormones
Hormones
chemicals that are produced by glands, released into the blood and act on distant cells.
Target cells
cells that hormones act on
Receptors
proteins sticking out of membranes of target cells. Difference cells have different receptors
Amino acid based hormones
Epinephrine, insulin, adrenaline. Affect enzyme activity to initiate a short term change in the target cell.
Steroid based hormones
Testosterone, estrogen. Affect transcription of DNA to initiate long term changes in target cells.
Pituitary gland
master gland, controls many hormones
Hypothalamus
Sends messages to pituitary to turn on/off hormones.
Pineal gland
Secretes melatonin
Thyroid gland
Secretes metabolism growth hormone
Thymus gland
Defends body against germs
Parathyroid gland
Regulates calcium levels
Adrenal gland
Affects "fight of flight" response
Pancreas
regulates glucose levels
Ovaries
Produce eggs and secondary sex characteristics
Testes
Produces sperm and secondary sex characteristics
Negative feedback
A release of an initial hormone releases another hormone which stops the initial hormone
Positive feedback
A release of an initial hormone releases another hormone which tells the initial to keep going.