39 terms

APUSH Period 2 (1607-1754)

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Jamestown
Colony in Virginia, The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony. The settlement became part of the Joint Stock Virginia Company of London in 1620. Grew to be a prosperous shipping port.
Captain John Smith
(1580-June 21, 1631) was an English soldier, sailor, and author. He is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas during an altercation with the Powhatan Confederacy and her father, Chief Powhatan. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony (based at Jamestown) between 1607 and 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.
Powhatan Confederacy
A group of seven Indian tribes that controlled Virginia. It was led by Powhatan and was an agricultural group. They allowed the original English Settlers to survive
Cash Crops
Americans moved from subsistence farming to this. Growing crops for market rather than personal use.
Indentured Servants
a poor person obligated to a fixed term of unpaid labor, often in exchange for a benefit such as transportation, protection, or training.
Lord Calvert of Maryland
This Catholic nobleman was granted control of land by the Chesapeake Bay for his loyal service to king Charles I; established the proprietary colony of Maryland; wanted to achieve great wealth and create a haven for his fellow Catholics, but died before he could
William Penn
the founder of the Pennsylvania, the early ideas of democracy and religious freedom and he was famous for good relationships with Native Americans.
Virginia Company
The first joint-stock company in the colonies; founded Jamestown; promised gold, conversion of Indian to Christianity, and passage to the Indies
Indentured Servitude
A practice where plantation owners in the colonies paid for people's voyages in exchange for a certain amount of year's work (approx. 7 years)
Mayflower Compact
the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was drafted by the Pilgrims who crossed the Atlantic aboard the Mayflower, seeking religious freedom. It was signed on November 11, 1620
William Bradford
30-time governor of Plymouth, very popular leader; distributed land among settlers to encourage farming
John Winthrop
(12 January 1587/8 - 26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Company in 1629 and was elected their governor on April 8, 1630. Between 1639 and 1648 he was voted out of governorship and re-elected a total of 12 times.
Model on Christian Charity/ City upon a hill
This spelled out the Massachusetts Bay colony's social and political ideals. It declared that Massachusetts "shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us." The settlers would build a harmonious, godly community in which individuals would subordinate their personal interests to a higher purpose. The result would be an example for all the world and would particularly inspire England to live up to its role as God's "elect nation".
Massachusetts Bay Colony
an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century, in New England, centered around the present-day cities of Salem and Boston. The area is now in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, one of the 50 United States.
(puritans)
Separatists
The Separatists were English Protestants who would not accept allegiance in any form to the Church of England. One Separatist group, the Pilgrims, founded Plymouth Plantation and went on to found other settlements in Rhode Island and elsewhere in New England. Other notable separatist groups included the Quakers and Baptists.
Non Separatists
Nonseparatist Puritans agreed with Separatists on the necessity of restricting church membership to proven saints. However, they did not condemn the Church of England. They contended that true Christians could and did remain in the Church of England in spite of its unscriptural practices. Furthermore, they believed Christians always existed within the church regardless of the form it took. Nonseparatists hoped to bring about change from within the established church. Separating from the Anglicans would frustrate that goal.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
(1639) the first written constitution in American history written by Hartford settlers. It established a representative government consisting of legislature elected by popular vote and governor chosen by legislature.
Thomas Hooker
Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.
Roger Williams
1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
Cotton Mather
leader of the salem witch trials in which 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
Poor Richard's Almanac
(1732) Written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and funny bits of observation and common sense advice (the saying, "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," first appeared in this almanac). It was the most popular almanac in the colonies.
Halfway Covenant
The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn't achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
Great Awakening
(1739-1744) Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies.
George Whitfield
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
Jonathan Edwards
He was an American theologian and Congregational clergyman, whose sermons stirred the religious revival, called the Great Awakening. He is known for his " Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God " sermon.
Sinners in the hands of an Angry God
Part of the Great Awakening, Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments of Hell.
Pequot War
1637 Conflict between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies, with American Indian allies (the Narragansett, and Mohegan Indians), against the Pequot Indians. This war saw the elimination of the Pequot in New England, and is exemplary of the Puritan use of genocide towards Native Americans.
King Phillip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanoags, led by Metacom, a chief also known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
Virginia House of Burgesses
was the elected lower house in the legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619.
Bacon's Rebellion
an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part
King William's War
One of the four wars fought between France, Spain, England and France's indian allies for control of North America. No major battles fought but brought terrifying indian raids. The major goal, other than prestige, was the control of the fur trade.
Stono Rebellion
was a slave rebellion begun on Sunday, September 9, 1739, in the colony of South Carolina. It was the largest slave uprising in the British mainland colonies prior to the American Revolution.
Triangle Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa.
Olaudah Equiano
sold into slavery at age 11; after gaining freedom, he spoke out against slavery and published his autobiography
Middle Passage
Part of the Triangle Trade
Africans were transported to the Americas, where they were traded for sugar and tobacco.
Mercantilism
Economic philosophy or practice in which England established the colonies to provide raw materials to the Mother Country; the colonies received manufactured goods in return.
Navigation Acts
regulated trade in order to benefit the British economy. The acts restricted trade between England and its colonies to English or colonial ships, required certain colonial goods to pass through England before export, provided subsidies for the production of certain raw goods in the colonies, and banned colonial competition in large-scale manufacturing.
Salutary Neglect
a period from 1607-1763 in which England did not strictly enforce Parliamentary laws, which allowed the colonies to flourish as almost independent states for many years.