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Porter Unit 5
Terms in this set (46)
Freedman's Bureau, 1865
Set up to help freedmen and white refugees after Civil War. Provided food, clothing, medical care, and education. First to establish schools for blacks to learn to read as thousands of teachers from the north came south to help. Lasted from 1865-72.
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
17th president of the United States, took office after Lincoln was assassinated, then was impeached
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
Crop Lien System
System that allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans.
1870 and 1871 laws that made it a federal offense to interfere with a citizen's right to vote
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Compromise of 1877
and informal and unwritten deal, that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election, United States federal government pulling the last troops out of the South, and formally ended the Reconstruction Era.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
was a famous western painter known for painting cowboy life.
Fredrick Jackson Turner
Historian during the 1890s who wrote the frontier thesis, which argued that the continuous existence of the American frontier had shaped the character of the nation, and the end of this frontier marked the end the first chapter in American history.
United States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn (1839-1876)
Little Big Horn
General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
Founder of the greatest automotive company in the history of the automotive industry. United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947).
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel.
Absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
John D. Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
National Labor Union
1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
An active, militant Irish organization of farmers based in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields who are believed responsible for much violence
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization.
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
bomb thrown at protest rally, police shot protestors, caused great animosity in employers for workers' unions
Henry Clay Frick
was Carnegie's supplier of coke to fuel his steel mills as well as his right hand man. He was very anti-union. He was in charge of the mills when the Homestead Strike occurred. His decision to use strike breakers ignited the riot, and helped stain the image of unions.
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
Women;s Trade Union League
a U.S. organization of both working class and more well-off women formed in 1903 to support the efforts of women to organize labor unions and to eliminate sweatshop conditions
City Beautiful Movement
Movement in environmental design that drew directly from the beaux arts school. Architects from this movement strove to impart order on hectic, industrial centers by creating urban spaces that conveyed a sense of morality and civic pride, which many feared was absent from the frenzied new industrial world.
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
N.Y. political boss (did not hold a political office) controlled the Democratic political machine known as Tammany Hall; Stole $200 million form New York City
National Consumers League
formed in the 1890's under the leadership of Florence Kelly, attempted to mobilize the power of women as consumers to force retailers and manufacturing to improve wages and working conditions.
American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption, with an emphasis on the psychological motivations of the characters. Famous for his novel Washington Square and his short story "The Turn of the Screw."
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
feminist author; wrote The Awakening (about adultery, suicide, and women's ambitions); ignored in her day but rediscovered by later readers
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
A philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations.
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