Fight-or-flight hormones released by the adrenal glands in response to stress; they are part of the sympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic NS activates:
The ___ __ ___ pupil dilation, increased sweating, increased heart rate and increased blood pressure.
Mimic the effects of SNS neurotransmitters norepinephrine, epinephrine & dopamine.
A1 adrenergic receptors:
___ ___ ___ are located on smooth muscles, such as blood vessels and result in vasoconstriction and CNS stimulation.
B1 andrenergic receptors:
Primarily located in the heart, and increase the heart rate and force of contraction, as well as increasing the conduction of nerve impulses.
B 2 adrenergic receptors:
Known as Bonchi & Babies.
Located in smooth muscle fibers fo the bronchioles, arterioles and visceral organs.
Relaxation: Bronchodilation and uterus contractions
Vasoconstrict nasal mucosa, decreasing blood flow, thereby decreasing congestion.
___ ___ cause arteriolar vasoconstriction, reducing conjunctival compression, redness.
Norepinephrine ( Lovophed ):
____ (____) is an A1 receptor rescue drug used for shock & hypotension, causing systemic vasoconstriciton.
Blocking of A1 receptor causes _____, except in the brain & uterus, where it vasocontricts
____ ____ Treats hypertension by causing both arterial and venous dilation, reducing peripheral vascular resistance and bp.
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy:
Alpha blockers effect receptors on prostrate gland, decreasing bladder resistance to urinary outflow.
___ ( ___ ) quickly reverses vasoconstrictive effects of extravasated vasopressors: norepinephrine or epinephrine.
____ ( ___ ) is an Alpha blocker that causes vasodilation to decrease blood pressure & urinary obstruction w/BPH.
____ ( ___ ) is an Alpha blocker that causes vasodilation to decrease blood pressure & urinary obstruction w/BPH
An agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions. Negatively inotropic agents weaken the force of muscular contractions. Positively inotropic agents increase the strength of muscular contraction.
Beta 1 receptors are located primarily on the _____; Beta-blockers selective for these receptors are called ______ beta-blockers.
Smooth muscles; blood vessels:
Beta 2 receptors are located primarily on ____ ____ of bronchioles and ____ ____.
Cardioselective B-Blockers, such as metoprolol & acebutolol, block the action of ____ on the B1 receptor; cardiac effects w/out constriction of bronchi.
When using Adrenergic ____ _____, assess for COPD, hypotnesion, cardiac dysrhythmias, bradycardia, and heart failure.
Patients taking ____ ____ need to check apical pulse for one minute and blood pressure.
Indirect acting; enzyme:
___ ___ cholinergic agonists inhibit the ____ cholinesterase which breaks down acetylcholine.
Cholinergic drugs ____ the intestine and bladder, resulting in ____ gastric secretions, gastrointestinal motility & urinary frequency.
Acetylcholine, carbachol, pilocarpine:
___, ___, & ____ are used in glaucoma and intraocular surgery to reduce pressure.
____ ( ____ ) treats atony and neurogenic bladder, by increasing the tone and motility of bladder and GI tract.
____ & ____ are indirect acting cholinergic agents that cause skeletal muscle contractions, such as those associated with myasthenia gravis.
____ ____ is a neuromuscular disorder that causes weakness of the voluntary (skeletal) muscles.