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62 terms

Pharmacology Exam Two A

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Catecholamines:
Fight-or-flight hormones released by the adrenal glands in response to stress; they are part of the sympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic NS activates:
The ___ __ ___ pupil dilation, increased sweating, increased heart rate and increased blood pressure.
Fight or Flight:
The sympathetic Nervous System
Adrenergic Agents:
Drugs that stimulate the Sympathetic Nervouse System
Adrenergic Drugs:
Mimic the effects of SNS neurotransmitters norepinephrine, epinephrine & dopamine.
A1 adrenergic receptors:
___ ___ ___ are located on smooth muscles, such as blood vessels and result in vasoconstriction and CNS stimulation.
B1 andrenergic receptors:
Primarily located in the heart, and increase the heart rate and force of contraction, as well as increasing the conduction of nerve impulses.
B 2 adrenergic receptors:
Known as Bonchi & Babies.
Located in smooth muscle fibers fo the bronchioles, arterioles and visceral organs.
Relaxation: Bronchodilation and uterus contractions
Nasal decongestants:
Vasoconstrict nasal mucosa, decreasing blood flow, thereby decreasing congestion.
Ophthalmic decongestants:
___ ___ cause arteriolar vasoconstriction, reducing conjunctival compression, redness.
Some A1 adrenergic drugs:
naphazoline, phenylephrine, tetrahydrozoline, pseudoephedrine.
Naphazoline:
Clear eyes
Phenylephrine:
Neo-Synephrine
Tetrahydrozoline:
Murine, or visine
Pseudoephedrine:
Sudafed
Norepinephrine ( Lovophed ):
____ (____) is an A1 receptor rescue drug used for shock & hypotension, causing systemic vasoconstriciton.
A1 receptors:
___ ____ cause vasoconstriction of the blood vessels.
B1 receptors:
Rescue Drugs; used to support the heart during cardiac failure or shock.
Albuterol:
Asthma Rescue medicine
Epinephrine:
Asthma 911 med; mixture of alpha one and beta two
Levalbuterol (Xopenex):
Inhalation bronchodilator
Salmeterol (Advair)
Asthma maintenance
Terbutaline (brethine):
___ ( ___ ) assists with uterine relaxation-stops labor
Vasoconstriction:
Activation of A1 receptor causes ____
Vasodilation:
Blocking of A1 receptor causes _____, except in the brain & uterus, where it vasocontricts
Alpha Blockers:
____ ____ Treats hypertension by causing both arterial and venous dilation, reducing peripheral vascular resistance and bp.
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy:
Alpha blockers effect receptors on prostrate gland, decreasing bladder resistance to urinary outflow.
Phentolamine (regitine):
___ ( ___ ) Vasodilation; controls and prevents hypertension.
Pheochromocytoma:
Tumor on adrenal gland that secrets norepinephrine.
Phentolamine (Regitine):
___ ( ___ ) quickly reverses vasoconstrictive effects of extravasated vasopressors: norepinephrine or epinephrine.
Prazosin (minipress):
____ ( ___ ) is an Alpha blocker that causes vasodilation to decrease blood pressure & urinary obstruction w/BPH.
Tamsulosin (Flomax):
____ ( ___ ) is an Alpha blocker that causes vasodilation to decrease blood pressure & urinary obstruction w/BPH
BPH:
Benign prostatic hypertrophy-enlargement of prostrate gland
Inotrope:
An agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions. Negatively inotropic agents weaken the force of muscular contractions. Positively inotropic agents increase the strength of muscular contraction.
Increases:
Activation of B1 receptors ____ the heart rate and force of contraction.
Decreases:
Blocking of B1 receptors ____ the heart rate and foce of contraction.
Heart; cardioselective:
Beta 1 receptors are located primarily on the _____; Beta-blockers selective for these receptors are called ______ beta-blockers.
Smooth muscles; blood vessels:
Beta 2 receptors are located primarily on ____ ____ of bronchioles and ____ ____.
Nonspecific:
_____ beta-blockers block both B1 and B2 receptors.
Metoprolol:
_____ (lopressor) is a cardioselective Beta blocker, given post MI.
Acebutolol:
____ (sectral) treats angina, hypertension, & dysrhthmias.
Catecholamines:
Cardioselective B-Blockers, such as metoprolol & acebutolol, block the action of ____ on the B1 receptor; cardiac effects w/out constriction of bronchi.
Relaxation:
Activation of B2 adrenergic receptors causes ____.
Blocking:
_____ of B2 Adrenergic receptors causes constriction.
B1; B2:
Nonspecific B-blockers block both ____ and ____ receptors.
Blocking Agents:
When using Adrenergic ____ _____, assess for COPD, hypotnesion, cardiac dysrhythmias, bradycardia, and heart failure.
Beta blockers:
Patients taking ____ ____ need to check apical pulse for one minute and blood pressure.
Rest; digest:
The Parasympathetic NS is where ___ and ____ occurs.
Direct Acting; cholinergic:
____ ____ cholinergic agonists bind to ____ recpetors, activating them.
Indirect acting; enzyme:
___ ___ cholinergic agonists inhibit the ____ cholinesterase which breaks down acetylcholine.
Stimulate; increased:
Cholinergic drugs ____ the intestine and bladder, resulting in ____ gastric secretions, gastrointestinal motility & urinary frequency.
Cholinergic:
_____ drugs stimulate the pupils and increase salivation and sweating.
Miosis:
Pupil constriction.
Cholinergic:
___ drugs decrease the heart rate.
Cholinergic:
____ drugs cause bronchial constriction.
Acetylcholine, carbachol, pilocarpine:
___, ___, & ____ are used in glaucoma and intraocular surgery to reduce pressure.
Bethanechol; Urecholine:
____ ( ____ ) treats atony and neurogenic bladder, by increasing the tone and motility of bladder and GI tract.
Pyridostigmine; physostigmine:
____ & ____ are indirect acting cholinergic agents that cause skeletal muscle contractions, such as those associated with myasthenia gravis.
Myasthenia Gravis:
____ ____ is a neuromuscular disorder that causes weakness of the voluntary (skeletal) muscles.
Physostigmine:
____ is an antidote for anticholinergice poisoning .
Negative:
_____ inotropic agents weaken the force of muscular contractions.
Positive:
_____ inotropic agents increase the strength of muscular contraction.