62 terms

Pharmacology Exam Two A

Fight-or-flight hormones released by the adrenal glands in response to stress; they are part of the sympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic NS activates:
The ___ __ ___ pupil dilation, increased sweating, increased heart rate and increased blood pressure.
Fight or Flight:
The sympathetic Nervous System
Adrenergic Agents:
Drugs that stimulate the Sympathetic Nervouse System
Adrenergic Drugs:
Mimic the effects of SNS neurotransmitters norepinephrine, epinephrine & dopamine.
A1 adrenergic receptors:
___ ___ ___ are located on smooth muscles, such as blood vessels and result in vasoconstriction and CNS stimulation.
B1 andrenergic receptors:
Primarily located in the heart, and increase the heart rate and force of contraction, as well as increasing the conduction of nerve impulses.
B 2 adrenergic receptors:
Known as Bonchi & Babies.
Located in smooth muscle fibers fo the bronchioles, arterioles and visceral organs.
Relaxation: Bronchodilation and uterus contractions
Nasal decongestants:
Vasoconstrict nasal mucosa, decreasing blood flow, thereby decreasing congestion.
Ophthalmic decongestants:
___ ___ cause arteriolar vasoconstriction, reducing conjunctival compression, redness.
Some A1 adrenergic drugs:
naphazoline, phenylephrine, tetrahydrozoline, pseudoephedrine.
Clear eyes
Murine, or visine
Norepinephrine ( Lovophed ):
____ (____) is an A1 receptor rescue drug used for shock & hypotension, causing systemic vasoconstriciton.
A1 receptors:
___ ____ cause vasoconstriction of the blood vessels.
B1 receptors:
Rescue Drugs; used to support the heart during cardiac failure or shock.
Asthma Rescue medicine
Asthma 911 med; mixture of alpha one and beta two
Levalbuterol (Xopenex):
Inhalation bronchodilator
Salmeterol (Advair)
Asthma maintenance
Terbutaline (brethine):
___ ( ___ ) assists with uterine relaxation-stops labor
Activation of A1 receptor causes ____
Blocking of A1 receptor causes _____, except in the brain & uterus, where it vasocontricts
Alpha Blockers:
____ ____ Treats hypertension by causing both arterial and venous dilation, reducing peripheral vascular resistance and bp.
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy:
Alpha blockers effect receptors on prostrate gland, decreasing bladder resistance to urinary outflow.
Phentolamine (regitine):
___ ( ___ ) Vasodilation; controls and prevents hypertension.
Tumor on adrenal gland that secrets norepinephrine.
Phentolamine (Regitine):
___ ( ___ ) quickly reverses vasoconstrictive effects of extravasated vasopressors: norepinephrine or epinephrine.
Prazosin (minipress):
____ ( ___ ) is an Alpha blocker that causes vasodilation to decrease blood pressure & urinary obstruction w/BPH.
Tamsulosin (Flomax):
____ ( ___ ) is an Alpha blocker that causes vasodilation to decrease blood pressure & urinary obstruction w/BPH
Benign prostatic hypertrophy-enlargement of prostrate gland
An agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions. Negatively inotropic agents weaken the force of muscular contractions. Positively inotropic agents increase the strength of muscular contraction.
Activation of B1 receptors ____ the heart rate and force of contraction.
Blocking of B1 receptors ____ the heart rate and foce of contraction.
Heart; cardioselective:
Beta 1 receptors are located primarily on the _____; Beta-blockers selective for these receptors are called ______ beta-blockers.
Smooth muscles; blood vessels:
Beta 2 receptors are located primarily on ____ ____ of bronchioles and ____ ____.
_____ beta-blockers block both B1 and B2 receptors.
_____ (lopressor) is a cardioselective Beta blocker, given post MI.
____ (sectral) treats angina, hypertension, & dysrhthmias.
Cardioselective B-Blockers, such as metoprolol & acebutolol, block the action of ____ on the B1 receptor; cardiac effects w/out constriction of bronchi.
Activation of B2 adrenergic receptors causes ____.
_____ of B2 Adrenergic receptors causes constriction.
B1; B2:
Nonspecific B-blockers block both ____ and ____ receptors.
Blocking Agents:
When using Adrenergic ____ _____, assess for COPD, hypotnesion, cardiac dysrhythmias, bradycardia, and heart failure.
Beta blockers:
Patients taking ____ ____ need to check apical pulse for one minute and blood pressure.
Rest; digest:
The Parasympathetic NS is where ___ and ____ occurs.
Direct Acting; cholinergic:
____ ____ cholinergic agonists bind to ____ recpetors, activating them.
Indirect acting; enzyme:
___ ___ cholinergic agonists inhibit the ____ cholinesterase which breaks down acetylcholine.
Stimulate; increased:
Cholinergic drugs ____ the intestine and bladder, resulting in ____ gastric secretions, gastrointestinal motility & urinary frequency.
_____ drugs stimulate the pupils and increase salivation and sweating.
Pupil constriction.
___ drugs decrease the heart rate.
____ drugs cause bronchial constriction.
Acetylcholine, carbachol, pilocarpine:
___, ___, & ____ are used in glaucoma and intraocular surgery to reduce pressure.
Bethanechol; Urecholine:
____ ( ____ ) treats atony and neurogenic bladder, by increasing the tone and motility of bladder and GI tract.
Pyridostigmine; physostigmine:
____ & ____ are indirect acting cholinergic agents that cause skeletal muscle contractions, such as those associated with myasthenia gravis.
Myasthenia Gravis:
____ ____ is a neuromuscular disorder that causes weakness of the voluntary (skeletal) muscles.
____ is an antidote for anticholinergice poisoning .
_____ inotropic agents weaken the force of muscular contractions.
_____ inotropic agents increase the strength of muscular contraction.