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74 terms

Pharmacology Exam Two B

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Physostigmine:
____ is an antidote for anticholinergice poisoning .
Donepezil; indirect:
____ (aricept) is an ____-acting agent helps maintain or increase memory
Overstimulation:
Side effects of donepezil (aricept) are caused by ____ of the PSNS.
Circulatory collapse; shock:
Cholinergic toxicity causes ___ ___ , hypotension, bloddy diarrhea, ____, & cardiac arrest.
Atropine:
Cholinergic toxicity is reversed by _____.
SLUDGE:
Salivation, lacrimation, urinary incontinence, diarrhea, gastrointestinal cramps, emesis.
Acetylcholine; cholinergic:
Drugs that block/inhibit the actions of ____ in the PSNS are called ____ blocking agents.
Atropine; scopolamine:
Natural cholinergic-blocking drugs are ____ and ____.
Benztropine; blocking:
____ (cogentin) is a synthetic cholinergic ____ drug that treats parkinsonins.
Dicycolmine; cholinergic:
____ (Bentyl) is a synthetic ____ blocking drug.
Tolterdine; synthetic:
____ ( Detrol ) is a ____cholinergic blocking drug.
Glycopyrrolate; blocking:
____ (Robinul) is a synthetic cholinergice ____ drug.
Oxybutynin; cholinergic blocking:
____ (Ditropan) is a synthetic ____ ____ drug.
Tartive dyskinesia:
____ ___ is involuntary, irregular muscle movements, usually in the face.
Akathisia:
Restlessness
Dystonia:
____ is a neurological movement disorder, in which sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures.
Torticollis:
____ is a twisted neck in which the head is tipped to one side, while the chin is turned to the other.
Atropine:
____ is used primarily for cardiovascular disorders.
Physostigmine:
The antidote for atropine overdose is ____.
Decreased:
Atropine causes ____ secretions from the nose, mouth, pharynx and bronchi.
Airway resistance:
Atropine decreases ____ ____.
PSNS; decreased; relaxation:
Blockage of the ____ results in ____secretions, ____ of smooth muscle, and decreased GI motility.
Dicyclomine; IBS:
____ (Bentyl) treats Peptic ulcer disease, ____, and GI hypersecretory states.
Glycopyrrolate:
____ (Robinul) is used to control secretions during surgery.
Scopolamine:
____ prevents motion sickness, as well as correcting imbalances of acetylcholine and norepinephrine in high centers of the brain.
Tolterodine:
____ (Detrol) treats incontenence due to overactive bladder.
Overactive bladder; bladder:
____ _____ results from relaxed detrusor muscles of the ____.
Oxybutynin:
____ (Ditropan) treats incontenence due to over active bladder, as well as reflex neurogenic bladder (spinal cord injury).
Heat stroke:
Anticholinergics taken by geriatric patients may lead to high risk for ____ ____.
Chronotropic:
Rate of the heartbeat
Dromotropic:
The conduction of electrical impulses.
Inotropic:
Force or energy of muscular contractions.
Digitoxin:
____ is no longer available in US.
Digoxin:
___ in as cardiac glycoside that increases myocardial contractility
Cardiac Glycosides:
____ ____ reduce heart rate and improve cardiac efficiency.
Electrical conduction:
Cardiac glycosides change the ____ ____ properties of the heart.
Positive inotropic:
Some cardiac glycosides have a ___ ___ effect, in that they increase the force and velocity of myocardial contractions, without an increase in oxygen consumption.
Negative chronotropic; reduce:
Some cardiac glycosides have a ___ ___ effect in that they ___ the heart rate.
Negative dromotropic:
Some cardiac glycosides have a ____ ____ effect in that they decrease automaticity at SA node as well as decreasing nodal conduction.
Increased; decrease; increase:
Side effects of cardiac glycosides include ____ stroke volume, ____ in BP and ____ in coronary circulation.
Digoxin; electrolyte:
____(lanoxin) levels must be monitored, as well as ___ levels; also has a very narrow therapeutic window.
0.5; 2.0:
The normal therapeutic drug level of digoxin should be between ___ and ___ mg/mL
Colored halos:
____ ____ are a side effect of Digoxin:
Phosphodiesterase:
____ inhibitors work by inhibiting the enzyme_____, which results in a positive inotropic response (vasodilation).
Amrinone; milrinone :
___ and ___ are phosphodiesterase inhibitors with positive inotropic effects useful for the treatment of ventricular dysfunction after cardiac surgery.
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors:
____ ____ are used in the short term management of heart failure, when pt hasn't responded to digoxin, diuretics or vasodilators.
6 hour infusions:
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are often given as WEEKLY __ __ ___.
<60 or >120:
When giving positive inotropic agents, hold does and notify prescriber is apical pulse is between _____.
Green; yellow:
Signs and symptoms of Inotropic toxicity is blurred vision or seeing ___ or ___ halos around objects.
Cardiac Dysrythmias:
____ ____ involve changes to the automaticity or conductivity of the heart cells.
Electrolyte imbalances; acidosis:
Cardiac Dystythmias can be caused by ____ ____, decreased O2 delivery, structural damage, ____ or adverse effects of drugs.
Vaughan Williams:
___ ____ classification system is used to classify antidysrhythmic drugs.
Class 1:
____ ____ blocks sodium channels.
Class 2:
____ ____ are beta adrenergic blockers.
Class 3:
____ ____blocks potassium channels.
Classe 4:
____ _____ blocks calcium channels.
Digoxin; adenosine:
___ and ____ fall into the "other" VW classification system.
Quinidine, procainamide:
Class 1a includes ____, ____ and disopyramide.
Lidocaine:
____ is the drug of choice for treating acute ventricular dysrhythmias associated w/MI.
Lidocaine, tocainide, mexiletine, phenytoin
Class 1b antidysrhythmic drugs include ___, ___, ___, & ____.
Flecainide (Tambocar); Propafenone (Rythmol):
____ (___) and ____ (____) are Class 1c antidysrhythmic drugs, which are used for severe ventricular dysrhythmias.
Atenolol, esmolol, petaprolol, propranolol:
___, ___, ___, & ____ are all class II beta blockers, which reduce or block sympathetic NS stimulation
Amiodarone, bretyliu, sotalol, ibutilide:
____, ___, ___, & ___ are all Class III are potassium channel blocking antidysrhythmic drugs.
Verapamil, diltiazem:
____ & ____ are class 4 calcium channel blocker antidysrhythmic drugs.
Adenosine (adenocard):
____ (___) is an unclassified antidysrhythmic drug that slows conduction through the AV node.
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia:
Adenosine (adenocard) is a rescue drug used to convert ____ ____ _____ to sinus rhythm. Short half life-10 sec; iv push.
Digoxin:
____ is used to treat dysrhymias, by slowing the calcium from leaving the cell, which slows conduction and heart rate.
Atropine:
___ is the ONLY antidysrhythmic drug used to increase heart rate.
Enhances:
Atropine ____ SV nodal automaticity and AV nodal conduction.
Antidysrhythmics:
All _____ can cause dysrhythmias.
Chronic stable angina:
___ ___ ____ is also called classic or effort angina.
Unstable angina:
___ ___ is also called preinfarction or crescendo angina.
Vasospastic angina:
___ ___ is also called Prinzmetal's or variant angina.
Athersoclerosis:
____ is the primary cause of Chronic stable angina, which is triggered by exertion or stress.