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80 terms

Music History 2nd Test, Terms/Definitions

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gated community for men employed in the cathedral
Universitas
unified collection of all schools and colleges under a single administrative head
Latin Quarter
reference to university area where all students spoke Latin
conductus
"to lead"
Feast of Fools
Church service on New Years featuring raucous revels
cauda
long melisma on a single syllable that sets a key word
motet
"word"
motetus
second voice in a motet
Ars cantus mensurabilis
treatise that describes intervals as consonant/dissonant and rhythm as symbol-specific
scholasticism
analysis by hierarchical categories and relationships
mensural notation
symbol-specific rhythmic notation premiered by Ars cantus mensurabilis
mode (modus)
division of the long (into breves)
time (tempus)
division of the breve (into semibreves)
prolation (prolatio)
division of the semibreve (into minims)
Roman de Fauvel
morality fable of corrupt political power written to describe Marigny
isorhythm
repetition of same rhythmic pattern again and again
talea
repeated rhythmic pattern in isorhythm
color
melody placed on top of rhythmic pattern in isorhythm
estampie
"to stamp"
punctum
pair of musical phrases in an estampie
open ending
1st ending
closed ending
2nd ending
vielle
large five-string fiddle
shawm
double-reed instrument with penetrating tone (ancestor of the oboe)
portative organ
small movable instrument with bellows pumped by hand
positive organ
large stationary instrument usually found in the nave of a church
clavichord (chekker)
keyboard instrument which creates sound by striking strings with metal tangents
Robertsbridge Codex
earliest surviving collection of keyboard music, produced by the French court
Reims
French city the crowns the king
Black Death
bubonic plague responsible for the deaths of twenty million people in the mid 1300's
Hundred Years' War
attempt by the English to claim all of France through the capture of Reims
hocket (hoquetus)
"hiccup"
AAB
ballade
cantus
lyrical top voice
ABaAabAB
rondeau
AbbaAbbaAbbaA
virelai
cyclic Mass
movements of the Mass are linked by common musical themes
contratenor bassus
progenitor of the bass voice
contratenor altus
progenitor of the alto voice
Babylonian Captivity
papl residency in Avignon during the 14th Century
Great Western Schism
both and Italian and French pope elected, one in Rome and the other in Avignon
Clementine Chapel
chapel built by Pope Clement VI in Avignon
capella
building for consecrated worship or organized group of highly trained singers
Ubi papa, ibi Roma
"Wherever is the pope, there be Rome."
canon
music in which one voice exactly duplicates another at a fixed offset
polymeter
two or more meters sounding simultaneously
Ars subtilior
music characterized by subtle, even extreme, rhythmic complexities
sincopa
syncopation, the temporary shift of the downbeat
proportion
time signature written as a fraction that modifies the normal value of notes
city-state
city that governed itself and surrounding territories
Squarcialupi Codex
Florentine manuscript of 354 compositions accompanied by rich colors and gold leaf
trecento
Century of the 1300s in which Florence flourished
madrigal
poem in vernacular tongue with music added for emotional effect
ritornello
refrain of a madrigal (often in different meter)
AAB
madrigal (three lines text, three lines text, ritornello)
caccia
"hunt"
ballata
"to dance"
AbbaA
ballata (ripresa, piede, piede, volta, ripresa)
ripresa
refrain of a ballata
Landini cadence
sixth in outer voices expands to an octave through a lower neighbor-tone on the upper voice
magister cappellae
"leader of the chapel"
number symbolism
theological associations with certain numbers (666 is the devil, 888 is Christ)
Sarum chant
English dialect of Gregorian chant
rondellus
English technique characterized by phrase exchange between voices
Summer Canon
most famous English composition of medieval era, features rondellus and canon
pes
bottom voice that continually repeats in English composition
rota
canon that loops upon itself to form endless loop
faburden
improvisation around a prior chant featuring successive 6/3 chords
English discant
formal implementation of faburden style
treble
top voice in English polyphony
fauxbourdon
French interpretation of faburden (improvised voices both below original chant)
Old Hall Manuscript
manuscript containing compositions written for Henry V
Battle of Agincourt
major English victory in the Hundred Years War under Henry V
carol
English strophic song
burden
refrain in an English carol
strophe plus refrain
form alternating verse (solo) and refrain (chorus)
pan-isorhythmic
composition in which isorhythm is applied to all voices (not just the tenor)
contenance angloise
"English manner"
pan-consonance
composition in which almost every note is a member of a triad (little dissonance)
Song of Songs
particularly lyrical book of the Old Testament with sensuous allegories