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67 terms

Pharmacology Exam Two D

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Angiotensin 2 Blockers:
____ __ ___ prevent the binding of AII to the receptors, blocking vasoconstriction and the secretion of aldosterone.
2nd; 3rd:
Angiotensin 2 Blockers are contraindicated in the ____ and ___ trimesters of pregnancy.
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers:
____ ___ ____ ____ allow angiotensin I to be converted to Angiotnesin II, but block receptors that receive angiotensin II.
Vasoconstriction; aldosterone:
Angiotensin II receptor blockers block ____ and the release of _____.
Ace Inhibitors:
Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used primarily in patients who cannot tolerate ___ ___.
Diltiazem; Cardizem / Dilacor:
____ ( ____ / ____ ) is a calcium channel blockers and is used to treat high blood pressure and to control angina.
Verapamil; Calan/Isoptin:
____ ( ____ / ____ ) is a calcium channel blocker and is used to treat high blood pressure and to control angina,
Benzothiazepines; Phenylalkamines; Dihydropyridines:
Three classes of Calcium channel blockers are ____, ____, & ____.
Amlodipine; Norvasc:
____ ( ____ ) in a calcium channel blocker that is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure and chest pain
Nicardipine; Cardene:
____ ( ____ ) is a calcium channel blocker and is used to treat high blood pressure
Nifedipine; Procardia:
____ ( ____ ) is a calcium channel blocker and is used to treat high blood pressure and to control angina
Nimodipine; Nimotop:
____ ( ____ ) is a calcium channel blocker.
Calcium Channel Blockers:
___ ___ ___ are used to treat angina, hypertension, dysrhythmias, migraine headaches and raynaud's disease.
Vasodilators:
_____ directly relax arteriolar smooth muscle, which results in decreased systemic vascular response.
Diazoxide; Hyperstat:
____ ( ____ ) is a potassium channel activator (vasodilator) which causes local relaxation in smooth muscle.
Hydralazine HCL; Apresoline:
____ ____ ( ____ ) is a vasodilator and is used to treat high blood pressure.
Minoxidil; Loniten; Rogaine:
____ ( ____ / ____ ) is an antihypertensive vasodilator medication.
Sodium Nitroprusside; Nipride; Nitropress:
____ ( ____ / ____ ) is a vasodilator that is used for the immediate control of very high blood pressure, as well as congestive heart failure or to control bleeding during surgery.
Vasodilators:
____ are used in the treatment of hypertension.
Hydralzaine:
Some side effects of _____ are dizziness, tachycardia, dyspnea, edema, and nasal congestion.
Sodium Nitroprusside:
Some side effects of ____ ____ are bradycardia, hypotension and possilbe cyanide toxicity.
Vasodilators:
____ should not be stopped abruptly as this may lead to a rebound hypertensive crisis and stroke.
Vasodilators:
____ may cause impotence in male patients.
Vasodilators:
Caution needs to be used w/hot tubs, shower or bath for patients on _____.
Diuretic agents:
____ ____ are drugs that accelerate the rate of urine formation, removing sodium and water.
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors:
___ ___ ____ work in the proximal tubule and block the action of carbonic anhydrase; resorption of water is decreased and urine volume in increased.
Acetazolamide; Diamox:
____ ( ____ ) is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat glaucoma, epileptic seizures, benign intracranial hypertension, altitude sickness.
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors:
___ ___ ___ are useful in the treatment of glaucoma, edema, epilepsy and altitude sickness.
Furosemide; Lasix:
____ ( ____ ) is a loop dauretic and inhibits sodium and chloride resorption.
Potassium Depletion:
Loop diuretices result in ____ ____.
Loop diuretics:
____ ____ are indicated w/ edema associated with HF, hepatic disease or renal disease, and hypertension.
Osmotic diuretics:
____ _____ are indicated for use in pts in oliguric pase of acute renal failure; also promotes excretion of toxic substance; reducation of intracranial pressure and cerebral edema.
Osmotic Diuretics:
____ ____ work in the proximal tubule and pull water into blood vessels and nephrons from surrounding tissues.
Mannitol; Osmitrol:
____ ( ____ ) is an osmotic duretic and should always be administered IV through a filter.
Potassium-Sparing Diuretics:
____- ____ ____ interfere w/sodium-potassium exchange; works in distal tubule and collecting duct, by preventing potassium from being pumped into the tubule, preventing its secretion.
Spironolactone; Aldactone:
____ ( ____ ) is a potassium sparing diuretic in which the excretion of sodium and water is promoted.
Potassium sparing diuretics:
___ ___ ___ are indicated w/hyperaldosteronism, hypertension, and reverses potassium loss caused by loop and thiazide diuretics.
Thiazide diuretics:
____ ____ inhibit tubular resorption of sodium and chloride ions; wks in loop of henle and early distal tubule, resulting in excretion of water, sodium and chloride.
Esidrix; HydroDIURIL)
Esidrix, a type of diuretic, is prescribed to treat high blood pressure and water retention.
Hydrodiuril; Hydrochlorothiazide:
____ ( ____) a 'water pill,' is used to treat high blood pressure and fluid retention caused by various conditions, including heart disease
Thiazide diuetics:
____ ____ are to be used cautiously in patients taking digoxin.
Hypokalemia:
_____ increases digitoxin toxicity.
Potassium:
Foods high in ____ include bananas, oranges, dates, raisin, plums, vegetables, potatoes, meat and fish.
Thiazide; loop:
Patients taking ____ or ____ diuretics should monitor bld glucose.
Hypokalemia:
S/S of ____ include muscle weakness, constipation, irregular pulse rate, and overall feeling of lethargy.
Very low density lipoproteins:
___ ___ ___ ___ are produced by the liver and transport endogenous lipids to the cells.
Low density lipoprotein:
___ ___ ____ is known as bad cholesteral and binds to vessels.
High density lipoproteins:
___ ___ ___ are responsible for the recycling of cholesterol and is known as good cholesterol.
Less than 200:
Normal cholesterol is ___ ___ ___ mg/dl.
Less than 150:
Normal triglycerides are ___ ___ ___ mg/dl.
Less than 130:
Normal Low density lipids are ___ ___ ____ mg/dl.
Greater than 60:
Normal levels of High density lipids are ____ ___ ___ mg/dl.
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors:
____ - ___ ____ ____ are a type of antilipemics; the statin sisters.
Atorvastatin; Lipitor:
____ ( ____ ) is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor used to decrease the amount of cholesterol.
Rosuvastatin; Crestor:
____ ( ____ ) is a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor used to reduce the amount of cholesterol.
Simvastatin; Zocor:
____ ( ____ ) is a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor and is used to decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood and to increase the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood
Pravastatin; Pravachol:
____ ( ____ ) is a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and it works by slowing the production of cholesterol in the body.
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors:
Side effects of ___ - ___ ___ ____ result in elevated liver enzymes or liver disease.
Myopathy:
____ is muscle pain.
Rhabdomyolysis:
____ is the breakdown of muscle protein leading to urinary elimination of muscle protein; caused by HMG-CoA reductace inhibitors.
Cholestyramine; Questran:
____ ( ____ ) is a bile acid sequestrant that prevents resorption of bile acids from small intestine.
Bile acids:
____ ____ are necessary for absorption of cholesterol.
Niacin:
____, aka Nicotinic Acid or Vitamin B3 has lipid lowering properties and is often used in combination w/other lipid lowering agents.
Niacin:
Some side effects of ____ are flushing, pruritus and Gi distress.
Gemfibrozil; Lopid:
____ ( ___ ) is a fibric acid derivative breaks down cholesterol.
Fibric Acid Derivatives:
___ ___ ___ decrease triglyceride levels and increase HDL by as much as 25%.
Ezetimibe (Zetia):
____ ( ___ ) is a cholesterol absorption inhibitor.