SOC 1010 Chapter 5: Separate and Together: Life in Groups

Which statements correctly describe "the strength of weak ties"?
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Place each major study of social networks in order of its publication from first to last.-Mark Granovetter's "The Strength of Weak Ties" -Matt Hoffman and Lisa Torres's article on gender, networks, and employment -Duncan Watts's Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age -Nicholas Christakis and James Fowler's article on networks and sexual healthIn the context of Charles Horton Cooley's theory of groups, classify each attribute as belonging to either primary or secondary groups.PRIMARY: ends in themselves enduring membership SECONDARY: contingent membership impersonal instrumental in purposeResults from the Twenty Statements Test (TST) over the past sixty years suggest that Americans' self-images have changed very little over time.FalseIdentify the true and false statements about social media sites according to statistics in the textbook.Almost 70 percent of all adults use a social networking site. More than 30 billion photos have been uploaded to Instagram.Who coined the term "anomie"?Émile DurkheimIdentify the following as either a primary or secondary group.PRIMARY: a married couple a close-knit group of adult friends who have been together since middle school SECONDARY: a professional football team a tailoring shop that makes bespoke (fully custom) suits for menMatch each quality to the correct group category based on Robert Merton's theory of group classification.IN GROUP: precise, classy OUT GROUP: nitpicking, snobbishan aggregatethe audience at a taping of Saturday Night Livea secondary groupthe cast members of Saturday Night Livea categoryall of the people watching Saturday Night Live on television last Saturdaya primary groupa group of close friends and family members who get together to watch Saturday Night Live on television each weekAn employee at the local Department of Motor Vehicles puts in an eight-hour shift and then goes to a local bar and grill to celebrate a co-worker's birthday. What aspect of bureaucracy does this situation highlight?Interpersonal interactions help humanize bureaucracies.Quinn is on a high-school volleyball team and has chemistry during the first period. If she wanted to assess her team's performance, which of the following could serve as a reference group?the men's volleyball team at Quinn's school another school's volleyball teamJeff Bezos, the founder of Amazon, has a rule that if a team cannot be fed by two pizzas, the team is too large. The "two pizza" rule exemplifies the concept of ____________.Social loafingIdentify each example as either instrumental or expressive leadership.Instrumental Leadership -The CEO of McDonald's knows that laying off 500 workers will bring discord among other employees but knows they must do so to meet quarterly goals. -Your boss does not care that forcing employees to work through the weekend may hurt morale. The project must be done by Monday. Expressive Leadership -The CEO of Starbucks considers requiring all stores to begin opening at 4:30 a.m. but after considering the undue stress it may add to employees, decides not to implement the change.Which of the following are aspects of group dynamics?how groups achieve goals how groups form how groups change how groups disintegrateJennifer's soccer league is quite large. It includes twelve teams, and each team has approximately fifteen members. Jennifer is very popular and has the most ties with individuals throughout the league. Which social network concept best describes Jennifer's situation?CentralitySolomon Aschexamined how research subjects responded when multiple other individuals clearly answered a question incorrectlyPhilip Zimbardoassigned research subjects to play either a prisoner or a guard for a two-week mock-prison simulation.Stanley Milgramled research subjects to believe they were shocking another individual in a different room when the person got a question incorrectspecializationAll members are expressly trained and qualified for their specific roles within the organization.technical competenceIn a bureaucracy, rules come before people; no individual receives special treatment.impersonalityBureaucracies always feature the supervision of subordinates by higher-ranking managers and bosses.hierarchyDocuments such as memos (or e-mails) are the heart of the organization and the most effective way to communicate.formal written communicationThese are meant to make all operations as predictable as possible.Which theoretical perspective would suggest that group memberships are used to separate and differentially treat individuals on the basis of their categorization?conflict theoryIdentify the individuals who are most likely to serve as weak ties.your father's business partner's son your cousin's friendThe phrase "keeping up with the Joneses" is an example of what group concept?Reference GroupIdentify the true and false statements about social media engagement and our social connections.True Statements -Americans are no more or less lonely or detached from one another than they have ever been. -Users of social media are more connected than nonusers.The United States is one of the most powerful members of the WTO not because of its outcome in disputes but because of its centrality.Joseph ContiSocial ties follow social-class lines and link high socioeconomic status (SES) individuals with a vast array of high-SES contacts who can provide job leads.Mark GranovetterSocial networks can shape our actions, such as voting behavior, because of which individuals make up those social networks.Duncan WattsSocial networks can influence not only an individual's health but also can spread everything from obesity to smoking and substance abuse.Nicholas Christakis and James FowlerMark just bought a brand new Subaru hybrid after driving a twenty-year-old car for a long time. He is really impressed with his new car and takes every opportunity to drive his friends around in it. Over the next year, three of his friends buy new Subarus and three others are seriously considering doing so. Which concept best describes what is happening in Mark's network?ContagionIn her best-selling book Lean In Women, Work, and the Will to Lead, Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg encourages girls and women to aspire to leadership roles. Sandberg partnered with ____________ to launch the "ban bossy" campaign.The Girl ScoutsInternalizationattending class because you think that the material in the class is worth learningcomplianceattending class so that you can pass and get a degreeidentificationattending class because you think your professor and classmates are smart and have interesting ideastradtional authorityauthority based in custom, birthright, or divine rightlegal-rational authorityauthority based in laws, rules, and procedurescharismatic authorityauthority based on the perception of remarkable personal qualities in a leaderSocieties value technology over relationships.Sherry TurkleAmericans have drastically reduced their levels of civic engagement over time.Robert PutnamGroup membership prevents a state of normlessness.Émile DurkheimLana was always spoiled during her youth. As an only child, she was lavished with praise and gifts from her parents. Unfortunately, they died when Lana was in college, and since then, Lana has remained single and has made no close friends. Her contact with other family members is limited. By virtue of her limited group membership, which of these concepts is Lana is more likely to experience?AnomieThe Burning Man festival challenges which norms and values of mainstream society?conformity capitalism bureaucracyChoose the term or phrase that best completes the sentence: Honor killings are primarily seen in Middle Eastern and ____________ cultures.South AsianIn their research, Matt Hoffman and Lisa Torres found that the number of women in a person's network did not affect the quality of job information that the person received from his or her network.FalseWhen leadership styles do not match with traditional gender roles, the disconnect can lead to feelings of surprise or upset.TrueWhich of the following principles were explained in Nicholas Christakis and James Fowler's 2009 work on social networks?contagion connectionWorries about the effects of social media on social engagement are an extension of whose earlier research?Robert PutnamWhich international business chain is referenced by George Ritzer's theory of spreading bureaucratic rationalization and increased efficiency?McDonald's