84 terms

Geography Chapter 3

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Oil revenues make up approximately ___% of the Ecuadoran government's budget.
40
Which indigenous group negotiated with Occidental Petroleum over its plans to drill for oil in their native lands?
secoya
The first U.S. company to establish an oil development business in Ecuador was:
texaco
The term used to refer to Mexico, Central America, and the islands of the Caribbean is:
middle america
The term often used to refer to the mixed cultures of Middle/South America is ________________.
mestizo cultures
What term refers to native populations of a region, as distinct from those who migrate in later?
indigenous groups or peoples
What term for Middle/South America is deemphasized in the textbook because of its colonial roots?
latin america
_______________________ is found at the southern tip of South America.
tierra del fuego
The mountain chain that extends along the western edge of Middle/South America is known as __________________________ in Mexico and as ________________________ in South America.
sierra madre, andes
The destructive earthquake in Haiti in 2010 was the result of what natural disaster?
plate tectonics
The mountains of the Caribbean were created when the ____________ Plate thrust under the eastern edge of the Caribbean Plate.
atlantic
The Amazon Basis lies within what country?
brazil and neighboring countries to its west
The source of the Amazon River is found in what mountain range?
andes
The highest point in the Americas is located in what country?
argentina
Which temperature-‐altitude zone is the highest?
tierra helada "frozen land"
What is the name of the tectonic process that has created many of the mountains in Middle and South America?
plate tectonics
In which ocean do trade winds originate?
atlantic
The world's driest desert is located in what country?
northern chile
The El Niño effect reaches its peak around what holiday?
christmas
The highest winds are found _____________________ a hurricane.
at the edge of the eye or center or
A storm becomes a hurricane when winds reach __________ miles per hour.
75
Which of the following is not true of most hurricanes?
a) They originate just south of the equator.
b) They draw their energy from warm surface waters.
c) They dissipate as they move over cooler water or land.
d) They begin as a group of thunderstorms that then coalesce.
a
How often does El Niño occur?
every few years
Fine soil particles are known as ____________.
silt
The world's driest desert is the _______________ in northern Chile.
atacama
What is the term for a blast of superheated rock, ash, and gas resulting from volcanic activity?
pyroclastic flows
Approximately _______% the earth's remaining rain forests are located in South America.
50
Tropical rain forests absorb approximately ___% of the carbon dioxide added to the earth's atmosphere yearly by human activity.
18
The world region that receives the most rainfall is:
middle and south america
_______________ encourages visitors from developed countries to appreciate ecosystems and wildlife that do not exist in their part of the world.
ecotourism
It is estimated that the southern tip of South America was first settled about _____________ years ago.
13,000
When Columbus arrived in the Americas, the largest state in Middle/South America belonged to what native group?
aztecs
What factors explain the rapid conquest of Middle and South America by Spain and Portugal?
a) Spain and Portugal possessed superior diplomatic skills and armies.
b) Native Americans were vulnerable to diseases introduced from Europe.
c) Native Americans were undernourished and lacked the ability to unify against the European invaders.
d) The Spanish and Portuguese encountered no resistance from Native Americans who sought trading partnerships with the Europeans.
a, b
What was the name of the Aztec capital captured by Spaniards in 1521?
tenochtitlan
What city now lies on the ruins of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán?
mexico city
Out of the ruins of the Incan empire, the Spanish created:
viceroyalty of peru
Following the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, _____________ took all lands to the east of the demarcation point (46 ̊ W longitude), and ___________________ took all the lands to the west.
portugal, spain
All of the following crops were brought to the Americas by European conquerors except for:
a) maize b) onions c) wheat d) bananas
a
Which two European powers vied for colonial supremacy in Middle and South America?
spain and portugal
What was the primary cause of widespread death among the Native American population after the arrival of Europeans?
disease
What countries are presently located on the island of Hispaniola?
haiti and dominican republic
People of European descent born in the Caribbean are known as ________________.
creoles
What term refers to people of mixed European, African, and indigenous descent in Middle and South America?
mestizos
The policy by which European rulers sought to increase the power and wealth of their realms by extracting resources from their colonies for the benefit of the "mother" country is:
mercantilism
What is a hacienda?
a large agricultural estate in middle and south america
A large factory farm in Middle/South America, on which crops were both grown and processed for shipment, was known as a(n):
plantation
Structural adjustment policies in the Middle/South America of the 1980s were based on what 3 concepts
marketization, privatization, globalization
The selling of formerly government-owned industries to individual investors is known as:
privatization
The largest of Middle/South America's export processing zones is found in:
mexican side of the U.S mexico border
Which country nationalized the oil industry in 2005?
venezuela
What term includes economic activity that does not pay taxes to the government?
export processing zones
What is the name of the industrialization strategy that results in the replacement of imported goods by those produced domestically?
import substitution
An export processing zone is also known as a ___________________________.
free trade zone
What is the name of the organization of countries opposed to further free trade without addressing protectionist policies in the developed world?
G22
Why do many governments in Middle and South America favor export-oriented agriculture?
a) It decreases the flow of profits from the region.
b) It brings in large amounts of cash with which they can repay debt.
c) It improves the supply of food for local consumption.
d) It is an effective means of smuggling illegal drugs into other countries.
b
The Movement of Landless Rural Workers began in _____________ and has been taking over the unused portions of some large farms.
mid 1980s
_________________________ refers to land claimed by several groups, who are in conflict over the right to use it as they see fit.
contested space
A ________________ takes place when the military takes control of a government by force.
coup d'etat
What are the primary drugs of trade for the middle/south america region?
marijuana, cocaine
What type of government dominates the Middle/South America region?
democratically elected governments
The government of Cuba is best described as what type of government?
socialist
The United States proclaimed the _______________________ in 1823 to warn Europe that it would allow no further colonization of the Americas.
monroe doctrine
What is a primary cause of contemporary population growth in the countries of Middle and South America?
low death rates
The spread of HIV-AIDS in Middle/South America can be attributed to all of the following factors, except:
a) cultural mores that discourage the open discussion of sex
b) cultural expectations that both men and women have multiple sex partners c) low use of condoms
d) drug use
b
The socioeconomic status of most of the Caribbean population can be described as:
global middle class
In terms of human well-being, the country in Middle/South America that ranks the lowest is:
haiti
The emancipation of slaves in the British-owned Caribbean islands took place in the ___________.
1830s
Japanese influence in Middle/South America is particularly strong in what country?
brazil, carribean, peru
The most common family structure in Middle/South America is the:
extended family
All of the following are elements of machismo except: a) polygamy
b) household leadership
c) attractiveness to women
d) storytelling
a
What has been the principal cause of the rapid population growth experienced by most cities in the Middle/South America region during the past 30 years?
rural people migrate to cities and towns
What is the name given to the set of values that governs the activities and movements of females in Middle and South America?
marianismo
What is the name given to the set of values that set the standard for ideal manhood in Middle and South America?
machismo
- Which of the following best describes the meaning of the expression "brain drain"? a) The lack of educational opportunities for people living in developing countries. b) The growing number of educated people working in low-skill occupations.
c) The decline in education spending due to high debt loads.
d) The migration of skilled people to a more profitable place.
d
In what occupation do most female migrants in the city find jobs?
street vendors or domestic servants
In the urban areas of Middle/South America, most women tend to be employed as:
domestic servants
The majority of people in Middle/South America are of what religion?
nominal christians/ roman catholic
During the 1970s, Christian and socialist ideas were combined to form a religious- based movement called:
liberation theology
What is the name of the fastest growing religious movement in Middle and South America?
evangelical protestantism
Which of the following is not an African-based religious belief system? a) Santeria
b) Voodoo
c) Condomble
d) Zulu
d
What term refers to cultural borrowing by immigrants?
globalization
What term refers to the loss of old ways and the adoption of new ones by immigrants?
assimilation
A city that is much larger than any other city in a particular country, and is often home to a large portion of the country's population, is known as a ______________.
primate city
What is the primary migration trend in Middle and South America?
rural to urban