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Plant Biology Exam 1 - Part 1
Terms in this set (75)
Organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) contain what element?
What 6 elements make up over 99% of weight of all living matter?
Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
Substances that can't be broken down into other substances by ordinary means are called...
Smallest possible unit of a compound, consisting of 2 or more elements, are called...
What organic compound is composed of sugars, is the most abundant organic compound in nature, and functions as a storage molecule to provide primary energy?
compounds with multiple glucose units are known as?
What form of glucose has -OH group on C1 located BELOW carbon ring?
What form of glucose has -OH group on C1 located ABOVE carbon ring?
Beta glucose (hint:
Amylose and Amylopectin make up a starch molecule. What is distinctive about the structure of starch?
composed of multiple
Cellulose has multiple ____-glucose units formed in a linear chain
What organic compound is composed of fatty acids?
What do we call a lipid with a glycerol backbone with 3 fatty acid chains coming off of the carbons of the backbone?
All triacylglycerols are hydrophobic,
1) saturated/unsaturated? no double-bonds between C
20 saturated/unsaturated? contains double bonds, branched, loosely packed in cell, decreased melting point, ~liquid at RT
What do we call a lipid with 2 fatty acid chains bonded to glycerol backbone (hydrophobic tail) and 3rd carbon linked to phosphate group with another polar group attached (polar head)?
what do we call lipids with wax embedded in them that serve as a barrier to water loss?
this barrier to water loss is a major component of cork cells and the outer most layer of bark in woody plants (stems, roots)
Peptide bonds that bind amino acids to make __________ can be disrupted by heat; this is known as being _________
Proteins are composed of what?
What is the basic structure of an amino acid
An amine group, a carboxyl group, and a functional R-group.
what % of seed weight is protein?
Protein Structure - Levels of Organization:
1) ___________ structure = linear chain of amino acids
2) ____________ structure = Twists along axis
3) ____________ structure = folds upon itself and forms globular structure
4) _____________ structure = protein - protein association
Nucleic Acids are long chains of ___________, which are composed of a sugar-phosphate backbone with nitrogenous base attached.
Name the 5 nitrogenous bases.
Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), Thiamine (T), or Uracil (U)
___ has a 5-carbon sugar backbones, whereas ___ has a 5-carbon sugar backbone but is deoxygenated at the 5' carbon
___ has a 5-carbon sugar backbone, whereas ___ has a 5-carbon sugar backbone but is deoxygenated at the 5' carbon
What part of the plant cell is surrounded by two phospholipid bilayers?
nucleus and mitochondria
What two cellular components are unique to plant cells and not animal cells?
cell wall and chloroplast
Where is the majority of the cells genetic information held?
What symbolizes the # of chromosomes in somatic cells (diploid)
What symbolizes the # of chromosomes in gametes (haploid)
What symbolizes the # of basic chromosome sets? This represents ploidy. (i.e. tetraploid, hexaploid, etc)
How are mitochondria and plastids similar?
Both are semi-autonomous (contain some genetic info), both can be >100 per cell, both evolved from free-living bacteria, and both have uniparental inheritance
Match the function with the correct plastid type
1) colorless, can store specific compounds that are visualized after staining
2) contains carotenoids, involved in attracting correct pollinators
3) contains chlorophyll, involved in photosynthesis
What organelle is the site of respiration (produces ATP)?
Inside the mitochondria is...
1) ______ (of the inner matrix)
2) _________ - Grana thylakoids (internal membranes) arranged in stacks, connected by stroma thylakoids
Mitochondria has two phospholipid bilayers surrounding it.
1) The inner membrane is known as ______: areas where inner membrane folds inward to increase surface area 2) ________ - inside inner membrane
· Single phospholipid bilayer
· Self-replicating and do not contain any DNA (external constituents have to enter for it to divide)
· Granular interior (may contain distinctive crystalline protein body)
o Photorespiration: O2 converted to CO2, convert byproduct to glycine
o Convert stored fats to sucrose (during seed germination) in glyoxysomes
What is the correct classification of monocots and eudicots?
Both are angiosperms
What classification of plants is described below?
- "Naked" seeds
- Produce secondary growth (wood)
- Include the phylum of Conifers
What type of angiosperm is describes?
1) ____________: herbaceous or woody growth, can produce secondary growth
2) ____________: herbaceous growth (usually lack secondary growth)
Do Eudicots, Monocots, or both produce secondary growth?
When correlating Earth's history with a 24-hour clock, when did plants first arise?
What is the term for a large, relatively distinct terrestrial region with similar climate, soil, plants, and animals, regardless of where it occurs in the world? (can contain many ecosystems)
What is the term for a localized area that has a certain type of environment & organisms? (i.e. a pond)
What biome is lush, species-rich, with precipitation of 100-180 inches per year (i.e. Costa Rica)?
What biome is the soil rich in organic materials, has hot summers & cold winters, with precipitation of 30-60 inches per year (i.e. New York State)?
Temperate Deciduous Forest
What biome is a vast plain characterized by coarse grasses and scattered tree growth with rainfall being seasonal (a total of 30-60 in/yr) (i.e. Africa)?
What biome is arid, has sparse vegetation, with precipitation of <10 inches per year (i.e. Arizona)?
What biome is the coldest of all biomes, has harsh winters & short summers, mostly treeless with precipitation of 4-10 inches per year (i.e. Canada)?
What 5 organelles make up the Endomembrane system?
Nuclear envelope, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Plasma membrane, & Vacuole
- Flattened sacs= __________
- Numerous __________ on exterior
- Forms nuclear membrane
- Modify & transport _________
- Tubular shape= __________
- Lack ____________
- _________ synthesis
- Transport & secretion
- Is located near plasma membrane
- Regulates Ca2+ levels
- Anchors cytoskeleton
- Is associated with plasmodesmata (Plasmodesmata is between two cells and this enables cell to cell communication by keeping plasmodesmata open)
Cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum
What are stacks of flattened, disk-shapes sacks (cisternae), branched into complex series of tubules at margins that have polarized faces (Forming face and Maturing face)?
A collection of Golgi bodies (dictyosomes)
The ___ face (associated with forming face) of the golgi apparatus receives, further modifies & sorts proteins from rough endoplasmic reticulum & vacuoles.
The _____ face (associated with maturing face) of the golgi apparatus is responsible for secretion via
with the help of vesicles (protein-coated and uncoated) used for transport.
What are the 2 protein types make up the cytoskeleton?
Microtubules & Actin Filaments
What is the 3D network of protein filaments that is extended through the cytosol and is involved in cell division, cell growth, and cell differentiation?
What protein type of the cytoskeleton has 2 tubulins (alpha & beta) that form dimers then coil to form hollow tube? Roles: Orderly growth of cell wall (CW), Correct microfibril alignment, Direct Golgi vesicles to CW,
Form spindle fibers during cell division
Which organelles structure is most associated with secretion via exocytosis?
What are two other factors, besides precipitation, that affect biomes?
temperature and latitude
What protein of the cytoskeleton is 2 linear chains coiled to form a helix that aids in cytoplasmic streaming (directed flow and delivery of constituents throughout cell)?
What is the cellulosic matrix outside of the plasma membrane that determines size & shape of cell with functions including: physical (prevents dessication), mechanical & protective support (prevents cellular damage), & acts as a selective portal for transport
What are the cell wall types? (the compositions of each varies, dependent on: cell age, location, ultimate function/fate)
Primary and Secondary (if deposited) Cell Walls
What "glues" adjacent cells to one another? What is this composed of?
Middle Lamella; Pectins
What cell wall component is actually synthesized in the plasma membrane then directly transported outwards?
Cellulose and Callose
Is this a description of a micro- or macro- cellulose fibril: 30-40 celluloses side-by-side, joined by H bonds?
Is this a description of a micro- or macro- cellulose fibril: multiple microfibrils wound together, like strands in a cable, with a tensile strength to that of steel?
The primary cell wall is deposited before and during cell expansion. The orientation of what influences direction of cell expansion?
- Two types of orientation:
A) ________ - expansion in all directions (meristems)
B) ________ - expansion perpendicular to microfibrils (most plant cells)
What has happened when cell wall expansion ceases?
Cell walls of adjacent cells:
- Primary ___: small gaps in primary cell wall where plasmadesmata is located
-Primary ___-_____: sites of numerous plasmodesmata
Primary plasmodesmata are formed during ___________ and are responsible for cell-to-cell communication & transport of substances
- Cortical endoplasmic reticulum strands trapped in cell plate that keeps the channel open = ___________
- Surrounding cytoplasm connected with adjacent cell = __________ _______
- cytolpasmic sleeve
What kind of transport?
cell to cell communication and transport of substances within and between one cell to another
What kind of transport?
Transport outside of cell
Plasmodesmata in secondary cell walls:
- ____: Gaps/depressions in secondary CW where plasmodesmata are located
- ___ _____: pits on adjacent cells aligned across from one another
- ___ ______: Area produced by gap/depression in secondary cell wall
- Pit Pairs
- Pit Cavity
Pit Types of the Secondary Cell Wall:
- _______ pits: Pit cavity uniform diameter throughout
- _________ pits: Secondary cell wall over-arches pit cavity
- Inner = gap width at primary cell wall
- Outer = gap width at sec. CW
Match each step of mitosis with what is accomplished in it.
1. Duplicated chromosomes become visible and compress
2. Duplicated chromosomes line up at equatorial plane of spindle
3. Duplicated chromosomes are pulled away from each other to opposite poles
4. Cell plate forms, enabling cell wall deposition between 2 daughter cells
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