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Nervous System Review
Terms in this set (25)
Some types of neurotransmitters are contained in and released from an axon terminal via these balloon-like structures.
These two processes terminate the activity of neurotransmitters released at a synapse.
reuptake and enzymatic degradation
Neurotransmitter release is triggered from an axon terminal when influx of this ion occurs through voltage-gated channels
When these receptors on the axon terminal of the pre-synaptic neuron are stimulated, they can reduce the amount of neurotransmitter released by a neuron.
This is the name given to substances released by a post-synaptic neuron that travel back to presynaptic neurons and affect their activity.
This is the neurotransmitter that causes skeletal muscle contractions when it is released at neuromuscular junctions.
This is the neurotransmitter that is released by sympathetic nervous system fibers to increase heart rate.
This is the general name given to small chains of amino acids that are released at synapses in large vesicles by some neurons.
Sometimes called the 'master gland', this is the part of the endocrine system that controls the release of hormones from other glands in the body.
Cortisol, one of the stress hormones released during the 'fight or flight' response, is released from this part of the body.
This is the approximate value in mV of a typical neuron's resting potential.
During an action potential, the movement of this ion is responsible for depolarizing the membrane.
At rest (i.e., not firing an action potential), a neuron's cell membrane is permeable to this particular type of ion.
Opening of this type of channel at this location in the neuron triggers an action potential
voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channels at the axon hillock
Opening a chloride channel (Cl-) would typically have this effect on the electrical state of the neuron.
hyperpolarization (i.e., an inhibitory post-synaptic potential)
This is the category of receptors that, when bound by a ligand, open an ion channel in the middle.
This is the category of receptors that, when bound by a ligand, activate a G-protein and second messenger
Synaptic plasticity is one of the effects that may happen in a neuron when this category of receptor is activated.
This is the general name given to a binding site on a receptor that affects the activity of the receptor only if another binding site is also occupied.
This is the category of receptors that are bound by neurotrophic factors like nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).
tyrosine kinase receptors (TRKs)
The division of the nervous system that regulates the 'rest and digest' responses.
This 'small but mighty' part of the brain regulates many important motivated behaviors (sometimes called the 4 Fs), and controls the pituitary gland.
This is the type of glia that creates the myelin sheath in the central nervous system.
Tiny in structure and present on most neurons, these are the parts of a neuron that receive most of the synaptic connections from other neurons.
The part of the subcortical brain that is important for motor function. It receives dopaminergic signals from the midbrain, and is affected in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.
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