APUSH Chapter 2
The Thirteen Colonies and the British Empire
Terms in this set (47)
1st permanent English settlement in North America in 1607.
A captain famous for world travel. As a young man, he took control in Jamestown. He organized the colony and saved many people from death the next winter and coined the phrase "he who shall not work, shall not eat". He also initiated attacks on Natives.
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony. Eventually, he was killed in a Pequot attack.
An American Indian princess who saved the life of John Smith and helped form more peaceful relations with the Powhatan when she married John Rolfe but died of smallpox in England on a visit to Rolfe's family. Her remains are still there as the English government refuses to send her remains back to North America.
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620
It was founded by the Dutch for trade and furs and became an English Colony in 1664, when the English were determined to end Dutch trade dominance, and took over the colony by invading New Amsterdam without having to fire a shot.
House of Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. It was made up of two representatives from teach town voted on by men who owned property. Later other colonies would adopt the Houses of Burgesses concept creating self-governing bodies in the colonies.
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
King Phillip's War
Under the leadership of Metacom, or King Phillip, the Wampanoag destroyed colonial towns, the colonists destroyed native farms, leading to the most deadly of Indian Wars. The war was disastrous for the natives leading to few surviving the war, and those that did left New England.
A colony ruled by governors appointed by a king
English colony in which the king gave land to proprietors in exchange for a yearly payment
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south.
One of the dissenters in Puritan Massachusetts held bible studies at her house and believed in a personal relationship with god. She moved to New Hampshire where she died along with her children from an Indian attack.
A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government. He wrote the first written constitution "The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut". This would become a cherished ideal of the colonial settlers that laws were written not arbitrary.
Sir William Berkeley
The royal governor of Virginia. Adopted policies that favored large planters and neglected the needs of recent settlers in the "backcountry." One reason was that he had fur trade deals with the natives in the region. His shortcomings led to Bacon's Rebellion
Established the colony of Pennsylvania as a "holy experiment". Freemen had the right to vote, provided leadership for self- government based on personal virtues and Quaker religious beliefs. His colony was religiously tolerant leading to diversity in the region.
Founded colony of Georgia as a chance for poor immigrants who were in debt to have a second chance at a comfortable life
Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore
1694- He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
It has the features of a written constitution, and is considered by some as the first written Constitution. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut is a short document, but contains some principles that were later applied in creating the United States government. Government is based in the rights of an individual, and the orders spell out some of those rights, as well as how they are ensured by the government. It provides that all free men share in electing their magistrates, and uses secret, paper ballots. It states the powers of the government, and some limits within which that power is exercised.
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Edmund Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
Acts of Trade and Navigation
Three acts that regulated colonial trade: 1st act: closed the colonies to all trade except that from English ships, and required the colonists to export certain goods, such as tobacco, to only English territories, 2nd act: (1663) demanded that everything being shipped from Europe to the colonies had to pass through England so they could tax the goods. 3rd act: 1673, was a reaction to the general disregard of the first two laws; it forced duties on the coastal trade among the colonies and supplied customs officials to enforce the Navigation Acts.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
Triangular Slave Trade
A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies. The conditions on the ships from Africa to the west led to the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives.
colony subsidized by a private corporation; crown does none of the dirty work yet still gets a piece of the profits. Rhode Island and Connecticut
A company in which investors buy stock in the company in return for a share of its future profits
Joint stock company received charter from King James I; Promises of Gold-passage through Americas to Indies/ Guaranteed English would have same rights in New world as in England.
Sir Edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England
A bloodless revolt in England against Catholic King James II that led to his overthrow and the appointment of Protestant daughter Mary to the throne. These events in England allowed many colonists in America to get rid of hated officials too
New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
Frame of Government
William Penn's constitution for Pennsylvania which included a provision allowing for religious freedom
A colony established by the English Pilgrims, or Seperatists, in 1620. The Seperatists were Puritans who abandoned hope that the Anglican Church could be reformed.
Charter of Liberties
Gave colonists in Pennsylvania the right to elect representatives to the legislative assembly
William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all.
A New England or Northern colony. It was the smallest of the original 13 colonies. Created by Roger Williams and believed in religious tolerance for all people.
A belief in Christian theology that faith alone, not obedience to religious law, is necessary for salvation.
Founded by Roger Williams (1636),Native Americans were dealt with fairly in buying land and religious freedom was extended to all.
Act of Toleration
A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland: Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland: protected the Catholics religion from Protestant rage of sharing the land: Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.
He was as Puritan clergyman who acquired the patent for a colony in Massachusetts in 1637; cofounder of New Haven.
Indian tribe that joined the Pilgrims in the first Thanksgiving dinner
Aka King Philip, Native American ruler, who in 1675 led attack on colonial villages throughout Massachusetts
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