BIO-322 Test 1 MC questions

An element has an atomic number of 8. This tells us: the number of protons in the nucleus is ______, the number of total electrons outside the nucleus is _______, and the number of electrons in the outermost (valence) shell is ________.
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Which of the following is most likely to be liquid at room temperature?polyunsaturated fatsA polypeptide chain is placed in an aqueous solution and spontaneously undergoes a conformational change to a 3D shape. Which of the following bond(s) is/are most likely NOT playing a role in the process?covalent bondsWhen nucleotide strands pair with each other, it is due to hydrogen bonding between _______________________purines and pyrimidinesWhen you stir sugar into your tea, sugar is the _________________soluteTo make 1 liter of a 1% KCl solution, you will use _________ g KCl.10A solution with pH 8 has a H+ concentration that is _______________ a solution with pH 9.10 times higher thanA large Kd for a binding protein and its ligand means that the protein has _________________________________low affinity for the ligandWhat term is used to describe closely related proteins whose function is similar but whose affinity for ligands may differ?isoforms"Down-regulation" refers to increased ______________________________programmed removal of proteinsA protein placed in a solution becomes unraveled, loses its native conformation, and is rendered biologically inactive. Which of the following is/are true?protein has been denatured, excess hydrogen ions in the solution disrupted hydrogen bondingA glucose molecule entering the body in ingested orange juice will go through what order of fluid compartments as it gets absorbed through the intestinal epithelium?intracellular --> interstitial --> plasmaWhich of the following monomers is matched with the corresponding polymer?glucose: glycogenEach of the following is part of the cytoplasm of a cell except ____________________the nucleusLeydig cells are specialized testosterone-producing cells in the testes. Which of the following organelles would dominate their cytoplasm?smooth endoplasmic reticulumWhich of the following is the site of Ca2+ storage in some cells?smooth endoplasmic reticulumWhich of the following is made from microtubules and directs DNA movement during cell division?centrioleHepatocytes, the primary functional cells of the liver, are extremely active in protein synthesis. Which organelle would be the most prominent in their cytoplasm?rough endoplasmic reticulumSynthesis of RNA from the double-stranded DNA template requires the enzyme ________________RNA polymeraseTranslation of mRNA produces a string of ________________________amino acidsWhich of the following does NOT take place during post-translational modification?alternative splicingThe exergonic hydrolysis of maltose yields glucose. Which of the following statements is true?free energy gets releasedThe linking together of many glucose molecules to form the polymer glycogen is a(n) _______________________endergonic reactionIn a chemical reaction, reactants are converted to products by breaking and/or making _________________ bondscovalentEnzymes increase reaction rates by ________________________________decreasing activation energyWhich of the following affects the speed at which reactants disappear and products appear during a chemical reaction?substrate concentration, temperature, presence of cofactors, pHAn enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of glycogen into glucose monomers might be named __________________glycogenaseWhich of the organ systems forms a protective boundary separating the body's internal environment from the outside world?integumentary systemWhich two systems are the primary control systems of the body?nervous and endocrine systemsWhich of the organ systems exchange materials between the internal and external environments?reproductive, integumentary, respiratory systemsMost cells are in direct contact with _________________________extracellular fluidWhich of the following organs or body structures do(es) NOT come in contact with the external environment?adrenal glandWhich of the following statements is NOT TRUE?the transverse plane divides proximal and caudal regions, the heart is superiorWhich of the following is NOT an example of a homeostatic response?sweating leads to loss of body fluids and urination increases the loss of body fluidsWhich of the following is NOT an example of negative feedback?uterine contractions during childbirth______________________ tissue serves to cover and protect, compartmentalize, and regulate exchange between the external environment and the body.epithelialWhich of the following cell junctions is/are paired with a correct example and description?anchoring junction (cardiomyocytes); contribute to the mechanical strength of the tissueThe most ubiquitous tissue type is ____________________. This tissue supports, connects, protects, strengthens, and insulates other tissues.connectiveThe disappearance of _______________ junctions occurs when cancerous cells metastasizeanchoringEndothelium is classified as which type of epithelium?exchange epitheliumThe epithelial tissue lining the inside of blood vessels (called the endothelium) is classified as ___________________________simple, squamousWhich of the following is/are involved in cell-matrix interactions?hemidesmosomes, focal adhesionsFibroblasts are ____________________________________cells that secrete matrix collagenCells that die due to physical trauma will swell, their organelles will deteriorate, and they will ultimately rupture in a process called _________________necrosisSecretions from endocrine glands go _______________________ and those from exocrine glands go _______________________into the blood, to the external environmentA gland that secretes into the lumen of the digestive system is considered an exocrine gland rather than an endocrine gland because _____________________________________________________________________________________the lumen of the digestive gland is essentially an extension of the external environmentTendons connect ________________________muscles to boneInjuries to tendons and ligaments heal more slowly because _________________________________there is a very limited blood supply to these tissuesWhich of the following is true for BOTH muscle and neural tissues?can generate and propagate electrical signalsWhat are the two extracellular fluid compartments in the body?plasma and interstitialThe fluid compartment with the largest volume in the body is _____________________________intracellular fluidThe general functions of the cell membrane include:physical isolation, communication between the cell and its environment, regulation of exchange with the environment, structural supportCell membranes are composed primarily of which two biomolecules?lipids and proteinsInterstitial fluid contains a high concentration ofNa+, Cl-Water is a polar molecule, yet it easily moves through the nonpolar portions of cell membranes. Which transport process is responsible?diffusion through channelsThe movement of water across a membrane in response to a solute concentration gradient is called _____________________osmosisHypotonic solutions have _________________ than isotonic solutionslower concentrations of nonpenetrating solutesA tissue placed in a NaCl solution gained water at equilibrium. This indicates that the solution was ____________________ to the tissuehypotonicMolecule X is transported across a cell membrane via simple diffusion. Which of the following is NOT true?at equilibrium, molecules of X will no longer move across the membraneMembrane permeability to a molecule depends on:the molecule's size, the molecule's lipid solubility, the lipid composition of the membraneWhich of the following is NOT a type of protein-mediated transport?simple diffusionWhich of the following is/are true regarding carrier proteins?transport hydrophilic molecules, could be involved in cotransport, never form an open channel across the membrane, undergo a conformational change to transport molecules, could be involved in passive or active transportWhich of the following molecules may cross membranes through facilitated diffusion?monosaccharides, amino acidsThe ability of a carrier molecule to transport only one type of molecule or a group of closely related molecules is called _________________specificityThe number of protein carriers present in the membrane limits the amount of molecules that can be transported through that membrane. This process is called _________________saturationWhich of the following statements is NOT true?protein carriers are always involved in active transportWhich of the following distinguishes facilitated diffusion from secondary active transport?requirement for metabolic energyTransport of a solute through membranes becomes saturated when _________________________________________________________all protein carriers transport the solute at maximum rateWhich of the following can control the amount of transport through open channels in a cell?the number of open channels present in the membraneWhich of the following can control the amount of transport through voltage-gated channels in a cell?the number of open channels present in the membrane, changes in membrane potentialWhich of the following can control the amount of facilitated diffusion of a solute through a cell membrane?the number of carriers present in the membraneCells use glucose metabolism to obtain energy for cellular processes. Glucose enters cells by ______________________________active transport when extracellular glucose concentration is lower than intracellular concentrationWhich of the following statements about glucose transport across intestinal epithelium is CORRECTmovement of glucose into intestinal cells depends on a symport carrierA ligand is a chemical signal that:obeys general rules of specificity, affinity, competition, and saturation, may elicit different responses in different target cells or after binding with different receptor typesGap junctions allow the rapid transfer of electrical and chemical signals between cells. Which of the following regarding gap junctions must be correct?gap junction proteins (connexins) must be membrane-spanning proteinsHormones get secreted by endocrine glands into the bloodstream and _______________________________________________________travel to all cells but elicit responses only in cells with specific receptors for that hormoneAn increase in receptor number on the surface of a cell membrane ____________________________________makes the cell more sensitive to the signal moleculesSteroid hormones can potentially bind to what type of receptor?cytosolic, nuclear, and membrane receptorsWhich of the following pairings is NOT correct?second messenger: protein kinasesWhich of the following is the correct sequence for G protein-coupled signal transduction?ligand --> GPCR --> G protein --> adenylyl cyclase --> protein kinase --> tissue responseWhat is the role of protein kinase?it transfers phosphate groups to proteinsA ligand binding a receptor can often generate a large number of second messenger molecules inside the cell. This is called _____________________signal amplificationDuring the absorptive state in a person at rest, ______________________________the liver forms glycogenWhy does the body store most of its extra energy as fat and not in glycogen?fat has a much higher caloric content per gram compared with carbohydrates, fat cells have minimal cytosol and are composed primarily of a large central fat dropletThe maintenance of plasma glucose concentration within its narrow range is achieved through which of the following?oxidative metabolism, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipogenesisWhere does gluconeogenesis take place?the liverThe exocrine portion of the pancreas produces ________________________digestive enzymesPrimary targets for insulin action include all of the following EXCEPT ____________________________renal glucose reabsorptionWhich of the following is TRUE about fasted-state metabolism?it is catabolic, maintains plasma glucose for the brain, leads to the formation of ketone bodies, promotes gluconeogenesisWhich of the following is NOT true regarding type 2 diabetes?it is associated with beta cell destruction in the pancreasIndividuals with diabetes who need to take insulin usually inject insulin rather than taking it as a pill because __________________________________________________the hormone will be broken down in the digestive system if taken orally