CD4, CD8
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Terms in this set (86)
Haptenlower molecular weight compounds, that by themselves are incapable of evoking an immune response, but when combines with a larger endogenous carrier molecule, will elicit an immune responseepitope-the part of an antigen molecule to which an antibody attaches itself -those exact portions of antigens of hapten/carrier protein complexes that are recognized by the specific antigen receptor sites on lymphocytes or antibodiesParatopethe exact antigen-binding sites of the antigen receptor on T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes ,or antibodies.Epitope (antigenic determinant)A specific region on the surface of an antigen against which antibodies are formedantigen receptorsbind with high affinity and specificity to antigens and initiate an immune response.chromosome 14alpha chainchromosome 7beta chaingamma chain delta chain 2 epsilon chainsCD3 complex containsCD4+ CD8+2 classes of MHC proteinsMHC Class 1nonapeptides are predominant antigen peptides, processed in the cytosol and bound in the peptide binding groovecan bind longer peptides of around 13-25 amino acids in length are processed in endosomes or phagolysosomesMHC class 11CD8+ cells (Tc)MHC class I present antigents tocytosolic pathwayantigens combine with MHC I proteins via the ________________ pathwayproteasomeslarge barrel-shaped protein complexes that process intracellular proteinsTransporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)assists in the transport of cytosolic peptides in the ER where they can combine with MHC class ICD4+MHC class II present antigens toEndocytoticphagolysosomes can combine with MHC II proteins via the __________ pathwayalpha 3 class ICD8 binds the _______ domain of MHC class _____beta 2 class IICD4 binds the ________ domain of MHC class ______CD8TcCD4Thhelper T cells regulatory T cellsCD4 occurs on _________________TH1 cellssecrete cytokines that activate mactophagesTH2 cellssecrete lymphokines that induce B-lymphocytes and subsequent production of antibodies (HUMORAL IMMUNITY)TH17 cellssecrete lymphokines IL-17 and IL-16 to activate neutrophils and leukocytesIL-2, GM-CSF, IFN-gammawhich cytokines do TH1 cells secrete?IL-4 and IL-5which lymphokines do TH2 cells secrete?IL-21 and IL-4 to activate B-lymphocytes and promote isotype switching and affinity maturationTFH cells secrete:CD4+ and CD25+Treg CellsTreg cells (CD4+ and CD25+)-crucial for the maintenance of immunological tolerance -powerful inhibitors of T-cell activation -secrete immunosuppressive cytokines such as Il-10 and TGFβ which each decreases adaptive T-lymphocytes responsesB 7binds to CD28 on surface of T cellsB7 B7 .1 (CD80) B7.2 (CD86)Co-stimulatory molecules include:Tc cellsattack and destroy cells that have become infected with a virus or other cytoplasmic pathogenco-receptorsembedded in th T-lymphocyte membranes to effect am antigen responseIL-2 GM-CSF IFN-gammaTH1 cells activate macrophages:IL-4 IL-5TH2 cells activate B lymphocytes:IL-17 IL-6TH17 cells activate neutrophils:B lymphocytes (antibody maturation) IL-21TFH cells activateeffector T cells TGF-beta IL-10Treg cells suppress ___________enhance neutrophil responseTH17 function:activate macrophagesTH1 function:Activate cellular and antibody response to parasitesTH2 function:activate B cells maturation of antibody responseTFH cells function:IL-16 TGF-beta IL-23TH17 differentiation cytokines:IL-4TH2 differentiation cytokines:IL-6 IL-21TFH differentiation cytokines:TGF-betaTreg differentiation cytokines:IL-2 IFN-gamma LT granzymes perforin granulysinTc cells medicate cell apoptosis and cytolysis by:CD25alpha chain of the IL-2 receptorCD25transmits activation signals to T-cell interiorBasiliximabwhat drug binds to and blocks the IL-2 receptor thereby interfering with T-cell activationAldesleukinWhat drug is a human recombinant IL-2 and produces in genetically engineered E. coliAldesleukin(what drug) immunomodulator (amplifies Tc and NK cell immune attack on cancer cells)Aldesleukin(what drug) indications: -metastatic renal cell carcinoma -metastatic melanomaAbatacept Belatacept(what drugs) CD80 and CD86Abatacept(what drug) fusion protein -Fc fragment of IgG1 -CTLA-4Abatacept(what drug) binds and blocks CD80 and CD86 (inhibits T cell co-stimulation by CD28)Belatacept(what drug) - a modified monoclonal antibody only 2 amino acid residues different from abataceptRA juvenile idiopathic arthritis adult psoriatic arthritisabatacept indications:kidney transplantationbelatacept indications:T cells inhibition of T-cells caused by activation of T reg cellsCTLA-4 transmits an inhibitory signal to _____________CD80 and CD86CTLA-4 activated by _____________________CD 152CTLA-4 also known as ________________immunostimulant pharmacotherapyCTLA-4 target for ____________________the same antigen-presenting cellsuppression of autoreactive T cells by regulatory T cells (Treg) requires them to interact with _________________Ipilimumabwhich drug is a human monoclonal antibody that binds to and blocks the T-cell suppression that is typically produced following the binding of CTLA-4 to CD80 and CD86Ipilimumabwhich drug can block the immunosuppressive effects of Treg cells which allow T-cells to become activatedIpilimumabwhich drug can also directly block the immunosuppressive actions of CTLA-4 typically exerted on Tc cells and Th cells, allowing T cells to become activatedhumoral (b lymphocyte) immune responses:B-lymphocyte activation TH2 cells b-lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation antibody synthesis an secretionAntigen-induced B-lymphocyte activationB-cell receptor (sIgM) Ig-alpha and Ig-beta (signal transduction proteins)protein tyrosine kinasesthe cytoplasmic trails of the Ig-alpha and Ig-beta contain sites to which cytoplasmic __________________________ enzymes associatecross-linking________________________ of the B-cell receptor by antigen is necessary, yet insufficient, stimulus to activate a naive B cellB cell co-receptorcomplement receptor 2 cell surface receptor for epstein-barr virusCD19acts as a signalling chain on the receptorCD81TAPA-1; target of antiproliferative antibodyCD81cell surface receptor for hepatitis C virus