Typography

Study notes for Ezine typography.
STUDY
PLAY
X Height
The height of a letter and does not include ascenders or descenders.
Typography
The craft of composing type and printing from it
Ascenders
The part of certain lowercase letters (b,d,f,h,k,l,t) that extends above the x height.
Descenders
The lowercase letters that fall below the baseline, as in characters g, j, p, and q.
Baseline
A line serving as a basis, on top of which letters sit.
Meanline
An imaginary line that establishes the height of the body of lowercase letters.
Topline
The top edge of the upper part of an ascender.
Serif
A font that has curved or extended edges, also called feet. Times Roman is a serif font.
Sans Serif
A font with straight edges, and thus no serifs at the ends. Helvetica and Arial are examples of sans serif fonts.
Pica
A printer's unit of type size, equal to 12 points or about 1/6 of an inch.
Points
The point system is the standard unit of measurement for type. 72 points equal an inch.
Leading
The space between lines.
Tracking
The space between letters within a body of text.
Kerning
The space between pairs of letters.
Feature
a) tells the reader a story; b) uses quotes liberally; c) allows the reader to see the story through detailed description and vivid writing; d) adds color, educates, entertains, illuminates, and humanizes an issue; e) may or may not be tied to a current event.
Alternative Story Format
This type of story gives the reader lots of information in a visually appealing and easy-to-grasp format, like a how-to, flow chart or side-by-side comparison., ASF consists of a whole story told in an alternative way.
Target Audience
A specific group of people for which you design and write your magazine, and can be categorized by age, gender and income.
Demographics
Characteristics such as age, sex, income, location, education, and religion.
Rivers
When your type creates gaps (a river) of awkward white space between letters. This often happens in justified text.
Rags
The uneven vertical margin of a block of type. Usually it's the right margin that's ragged (as in the flush left/rag right setting). This creates "orphans" and "widows."
Typography Heirarchy
A system for organizing type that creates an order of importance within the data, allowing the reader to easily find what they are looking for and navigate the content. It helps guide the reader's eye to where a section begins and ends, and helps the reader pick out information based on the consistent use of style throughout a body of text.
Subhead
A subordinate caption, title, or headline.
Eye line
A line on your page, two-thirds the way up or down. An invisible guide that organizes the layout of the spread horizontally.
Trapped Space
Conspicuous chunk of white space isolated in the interior of the layout.
Raster Graphics
Also called bitmaps. Images composed of pixels that have a fixed resolution and cannot be re-sized without losing image quality.
Vector Graphics
Graphics that use points, lines, curves, and shapes based on mathematical equations to represent images.
CMYK
A color system used for printing that creates colors by blending different levels of Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Key black.
RGB
Colors used on the computer screens: Red, Green and Blue.
A bleed
When your photograph extends outside your page margin and off the page.
Widows and Orphans
A widow is a one-word line at the end of a paragraph. An orphan is a one-word line at the beginning of a body of text.
Rule of Thirds
A composition rule that divides the screen into thirds horizontally and vertically, like a tic-tac-toe grid placed over the picture. The main object in every shot is located at one of the four intersections of the horizontal and vertical lines.
Tools Panel
The Adobe tools you see on the left side of your page.
Control Panel
The Adobe options you see directly above your page.
Panel Dock
The Adobe options you see to the right of your page.
Context Menu
Appears when you right-click some objects in the Photoshop workspace.
Warm colors
Warm colors include red, orange, and yellow, and variations of those three colors. They are generally energizing, passionate, and positive.
Cool colors
Cool colors include green, blue, and purple, are often more subdued than warm colors. They are the colors of night, water and nature, and are usually calming, relaxing, and somewhat reserved.
Unique Blue
Blue is the only primary color within the cool spectrum, which means the other colors are created by combining blue with a warm color (yellow for green and red for purple).
Neutral Colors
Neutral colors often serve as the backdrop in design. They're commonly combined with brighter accent colors, but can also be used on their own in designs. They can create very sophisticated layouts. Neutral colors include black, white, grey, brown, beige/tan, and cream/ivory.
Unique Beige
Beige is somewhat unique because it can take on cool or warm tones depending on the colors surrounding it. It has the warmth of brown and the coolness of white.
Complementary Colors in the Color Spectrum
A combination of one primary color and one secondary color to form white light. The complementary color is directly opposite on the color wheel.
Primary and Secondary Colors
Red, blue and yellow are primary colors (pyramid). Violet, orange and green are secondary colors (inverted pyramid).
Background information
Information needed to better understand the subject of the article.
Interview Goals
The objectives you have set for your interview so you can leave having the information you need for your article.
Open-Ended Questions
Questions that allow for full-sentence answers, as opposed to Yes or No questions.
Active Voice
Writing with expressive, action verbs in the present tense.
Action Verbs
A verb that shows either physical or mental activity. Ex. run
Narrative Lead
A lead that begins a story by placing readers in the middle of the action.
AP Style
Associated Press style, which is used for news writing.
Newsworthiness
Timeliness, proximity, consequence, prominence, human interest, shock/bizarre.
Leads
Narrative, descriptive, startling statement, contrast/compare, question, twist, direct address.
Story Angle
The point, tone or theme of a story.
Interview Protocols
Observation, interview goals, proper location, open-ended questions.
Ladder
Listing, by page number, of what is in your publication.
Style Sheet
A sheet summarizing the design elements of your publication, like font, font size, leading, end symbol, etc.
Byline
The line that tells you who wrote an article.
Photo or art credit
Who took the photo or created the illustration.
Caption
A short description of a picture in sentence form.
Folio
Page number. Some magazines also include the magazine name.
PPI
Pixels per inch
Size of your magazine page
8.25 inches x 10.75 inches
Save photos for print at...
300 pixels per inch
Actual PPI
"Actual ppi" is the photo's original resolution.
Effective PPI
The print quality.
Cap Height
The height of capital letters from the baseline to the top of the caps.