1. decision goals often are vague, conflicting, and lack consensus among managers. managers often unaware of problems or opportuntities that exist in the organization. 2. rational procedures are not always used, and, when they are, they are confined to a simplisitc view of the problem that does not capture the complexity of real organizational events. 3. managers' searches for alternatives are limited b/c of human, info, and resource constraints. 4. most managers settle for a satisficing rather than a maximizing solution, partly b/c they have limited info and partly b/c they have only vague criteria for what constitutes a maximizing solution.