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AP Psych Chapter 2 Terms
Terms in this set (63)
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Application: There are many different types of meurons and each have a sell body and its branching fibers
fibers that extend from the cell body
Application: The processes are dendrites and axons in a neuron
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Application: Dendrites are fibers that receive impulses and listen.
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Application: Axons are fibers that carry the impulse away from the cell body to the terminal buttons to be passed to the next cell
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node the the next
Application: The myelin sheath insulates the axons of some neurons. Its importance is shown in multiple sclerosis.
houses neurotransmitters for carrying impulse across the synapse
Application: The branches of the axon terminal form junctions with other cells.
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon; is generated by the movement of positively charges atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membranes
Application: An action potential occurs when stimulated by chemical messages from neighboring neurons.
a resting pause; where the neuron pumps the positively charges sodium ions back outside
Application: The refractory period is like a camera flash pausing to recharge.
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Application: A threshold is a minimum intensity that occurs when excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity
when increasing the stimulus above the threshold does not increase the action potential's intensity
Application: An all-or-none response won't occur of there is a strong stimulus
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron; the tiny gap is the synaptic gap or cleft
Application: The synapse is the gap between the axon terminal and the neuron that is a millionth of an inch wide.
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons; when released by the sending neuron, they travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
Application: A neurotransmitter is triggered when the action potential reaches the terminals at an axon's end.
the sending neuron normally reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitter molecules
Application: After a transmit of neural impulse occurs, there is a reuptake and neurotransmitters are recycled.
"morphine within"; neutral, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
Application: Endorphins help to explain good feelings such as the "runner's high" , painkilling effects of acupuncture, and the indifference the pain
similar in structure to the neurotransmitter molecule to mimic its effects, or it may block the neurotransmitter's reuptake
Application: Agonists excite and and example is when opiate drugs make one high and aroused.
similar to the neurotransmitter to occupy its receptor site and block its action
Application: Antagonists inhibit and can be a drug molecule that inhibits a neurotransmitter's release
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Application: In the nervous the system, the elementary components are the neurons
the brain and the spinal chord
Application: the central nervous system enables our thinking, feeling, and acting.
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Application: The peripheral nervous system connects the central nervous system to the body's sense receptors, muscles, and glands
neural cables containing many axons; part of the peripheral nervous system connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
Application: Nerves are electrical cables bundled with PNS information that are carried by axons
sensory, motor, and internuerons
sensory: neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
Motor: neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system
Interneuron: cns neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
Application: Through the sensory, motor, and interneurons, information travels
The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles; aka skeletal nervous system
Application: The somatic nervous system will report to my brain the state of my skeletal muscles and carry instructions back causing my hand to turn the page
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs; its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms
Application: The autonomic nervous system operates on its own to influence our internal functioning, including our heartbeat, digestion, and glandular activity
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Application: If something alarms, enrages, or challenges you, the sympathetic nervous system will accelerate your heartbeat, raise blood pressure, slow digestion, and cool you with perspiration
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Application: The parasympathetic nervous system lowers blood sugar, decreases heartbeat, and works together with the sympathetic nervous system.
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
Application: The pain reflex is enabled when a finger touches a flame and the interneurons respond by activating motor neurons to the muscles in the arm.
the body's "slow" chemical communication syster; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Application: The endocrine system and nervous system are kindred systems because they both secrete molecules that activate receptors elsewhere.
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect one another
Application: Hormones originate in one tissue and affect other tissues including the brain.
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys; the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine which help to arouse the body in times of stress
Application: In a time of danger, the autonomic system orders the adrenal glands to release epinephrine and norepinephrine which increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar.
the endocrine system's most influential gland; under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Application: The pituitary gland is the master gland. Under the brains influence, it triggers your sex glans to release sex hormones
Application: There are many thyroid function problems in women such as hypothyroid and hyperthyroid
tissue destruction; naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
Application: We can selectively lesion the tiny clusters of normal or defective brain cells and leave the other cells unharmed.
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface; these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
Application: Studying the electroencephalogram is like studying a car engine by listening to its hum
uses radiation; shows structure but not function
Application: The Computed Tomography Scan helps to visualize all parts of the body and is useful when someone gets into an accident
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
Application: The positron emission topography shows which brain area are most active as the person performs mathematical calculations, listens to music, or daydreams
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; can see structure in brain
Application: Magnetic resonance imaging scans reveal a larger then average neural area in the left brain of musician who have perfect pitch. It can also reveal the brain areas of people with schizophrenia.
a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans; show brain function
Application: The fMRI scans located the increased brain activity associated with lying.
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull, the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
Application: The brain stem is the crossover part, where the nerves to and frome each side of the brain connect with the body's opposite side.
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
Application: The medulla is formed by the brainstem and aboce it is the pons which coordinate movements
the brain's sensory switchboard. located on top of the brainstem; directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Application:The thalamus receives all messages except the smell and deals with seeing, hearing, tasting, and touching
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
Application: The reticular formation filters incoming stimuli and relays important information to other areas of the brain.
he "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; processes sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
Application: The cerebellum enables nonverbal learning and memory.
a doughnut shaped system of neural structure st the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with aggression and drives such as those for food and sex; includes hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus
two lima bean sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
Application: The amygdala influences aggression and fear
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities (eating drinking, body temp)
Application: the hypothalamus monitors the blood chemistry and takes orders from the other parts of the brain.
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information processing center
Application: The larger the cerebral cortex, the adaptability of the organism increases
"glue cells"; cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
Application: Glial cells provide nutrients and insulate myelin
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
Application: This lobe defines the broad division of the cerebral cortex.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
Application: The parietal lobe deals with touch
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory ares, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
Application: Wernicke's area and the auditory cortex is in the temporal lobe
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field
Application: The occipital lobe deals with sight.
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements
Application: The motor cortex is arch shaped from the ear to ear across the top of the brain
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
Application: The more sensitive the region, the larger the area of the sensory cortex
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
Application: Associate with various sensory inputs with stored memories
controls language expression- an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Application: A person would struggle to speak words while being able to sing familiar songs and comprehend speech
controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
Application: Damage in this can make people speak meaningless words.
the brains capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development
Application: Plasticity allows for change in the brain and modification to adapt to society
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
Application: This connects the two hemispheres andtreats patients with uncontrollable epilepsy
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them
Application: You test the function of the right brain and the left
French physician; reported that damage to broca's area would make person struggle to speak
Application: Helped create the name Broca's area
divided the brain of cats and monkeys.
Application: He revealed that this broad band of more than 200 million nerve fibers has a significant purpose.
Application: He found that two parts of the brain have specailized functions and can operate without the other
Application: Helped make the name Wernicke's area
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