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1/21 (exam 1)
Terms in this set (24)
who did the
depth of processing
-Craik & Lockhart, 1972
what was the main point of the article?
what does it require?
this is why..
-srength of memory/encoding depends on level of processing and
-(attention and level/depth affects how well you remember (article))
-requires attention to enter 1st level of memory (encoding)
-this is why we dont wanna focus on passive learning strategies (& mind wandering)
what are the 2 types of encoding?
-shallow encoding and deep encoding
-focus on surface of characteristics, giving little attention (e.g. passively rereading)
-meaning based on processing, attention required
-use shallow encoding methods (rewriting, highlighting, color code, reread, retype)
what else should you avoid?
what is maintence rehearsal?
whats it not good for?
-shallow type of encoding. low-level, repetitive infomation recycling (e.g. repeating phone #)
-not good for memory/deep processing (studying)
what is structural processing?
what is phonemic processing?
what do both of these things go along w?
-count curved letters
-does this rhyme w/...
-both are shallow, goes along with maintenance and appearance
what is it better than?
-build a network of meaningful associations between concepts
-better than maintenance rehearsal = repeating
-this is why exams are cumulative
what is semantic processing?
- = better recall
-focus on connecting new + prior knowledge
-build consistent cues for info - organize thematically
-practice free recall - more difficult than recognition
in the study for the evidence for depth of processing, describe the 3 bars
-the lowest bar was graphemic, then phonemic, but the highest bar was semantic! (so semantic is elaborative = better recall)
depth of processing generalizes (3 things):
-across numerous encoding tasks
-on recognition and recall tests
-regardless it participants expect a final test
what does it mean to transfer appropriate processing?
-memory is enhanced if encoding type during study "matches" retrieval type during test
describe how active learning relates to depth of processing.
active learning =
-the more you do with the information to remember it, the better you will remember
what is the
is this the best?
-relate infomation to you everyday experiences to help apply/remember concpets
-self-reference is the strongest kind, bc you relate it to yourself (the more you personalize something the more meaningful it is)
what is the
what does learning by doing invole?
-examples you CREATE are better remembered than info you only read/hear
-(enACTment) ppl remember things better if they do it themselves
-learning by doing (involves spatial/motor component)
-ex: youtube video on how to fix car prob
-focused more on actual SPEECH part
what is the
-retrieving info solidifies memory transfer (repeated retrieving)
how do you prevent forgetting?
why should you practice free recall? what types of recall are there?
-focus on retrieval based practice: active instead of passive studying (DO: test yourself)
-practice free recall - more diffucult than recognition.... free recall, cued recall, serial recall
________ helps memory
who found this, and what did he find?
what kind of practice is better?
-ebbinghaus - memory is better w/ more practice
-distributed (spaced) practice = better memory: study in shorter and more frequent sessions, update your PG answers
-your monitoring of what you know, dont know, & how well you learned
-e.g. starring Qs you arent sure about/need to study more
what 2 things are important (related to self regulation)?
what is region of proximal learning?
what is desirable difficulty?
what are some things uou could do?
region of proximal learning + desirable difficulty
-challenge helps encoding and learning be more active
-long term memory better for tasks requiring effort
-create list of easiest to hardest
-start w/ familiar material and work up to unfamiliar, challenging topics
what is the labor in vein effect?
-too much time on difficult items yields less progress than items you have some knowledge about (mentioned in article)
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