30 terms

AP Gov Key Terms - Chapter 10

Median-voter Theorum
when voters engage in issue voting, competition between two candidates has the effect of pushing the candidates' positions toward the middle distribution of voters' preferences
Adverse selection problem
the problem of incomplete information - of choosing alternatives without fully knowing the details of available options
Moral hazard
not knowing all aspects of the actions taken by an agent (nominally on behalf of the principle but potentially at the principal's expense)
Agency Approach
people would rather spend their own time on their own things - delegate power to agents focuses on the control of the agent
Consent Approach
emphasizes right of the citizen to participate in government by voting (form of consent)
Turnout rate
the ration comparing the number of people who voted to some baseline population
"Motor voter" Bill
(1993) - people can register to vote when they renew their driver's liscence. Registration froms must be in the DMV, public assistance and military recruitment offices
majority system
a type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in a representative body, a candidate must receive a majority (50 percent plus 1) of all the votes cast in the relevent district
plurality system
a type of electoral system in which victory goes to the individual who gets the most votes in an election, but not necessarily a majority of the votes cast
proportional representation
a multi-member district system that allows each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the vote (used in Democratic primary election)
the apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one political party
"Benign" racial gerrrymandering
drawing lines to make it easier for minority groups to be represented
Shaw v. Reno
if congressional districts were so "bizarre" as to be inexplicable on any grounds other than an effort to ensure election of minority group members to office, white voters would have reason to assert they had been victims of racial gerrymandering
Miller v. Johnson
questioned benign racial gerrymandering by asserting that the use of race as a "predominant factor" in the drawing of district lines was presumptively unconstitutional. Race should be one of the factors
Electoral College
the presidential electors from each state who meet in their respective state capitol after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president
Australian Ballot
an electoral format that presents the names of all the candidates for any given office on the same ballot. Introduced at the end of the 18th century, the Australian ballot replaced the partisan ballot and facilitated split-ticket voting
Ticket Splitting
voting for candidates in different parties for different offices; facilitated bu the Australian ballot
the practice of referring a measure proposed or passed by a legislature to the vote of the electorate for approval or rejection
a process by which a citizen may petition to place a policy proposal on the ballot for public office
recall election
the removal of a public official by popular vote
prospective voting
voting based on the imagined future performance of a candidate
retrospective voting
voting based on the past performance of a candidate
"Balance the ticket"
make certain that a party's ticket included members of as many important groups as possible
Political Action Committee (PAC)
private groups that raise and distribute funds for use in election campaigns
527 Organizations
Tax-exempt organizations that engage in political activities often through unlimited "soft money" contributions. The committees are not restricted by current law on campaign finance, thus exploiting a loophole in the Internal Revenue Service Code
issue advocacy
independent spendintg by individuals or interest groups that support a campaign issue but is not directly tied to a particular candidate (free from regulation)
soft money
contributed to political parties and recycled into campaigns but not contributed directly to a candidate and not subjected to limitations of Federal Election Campaign Act
hard money
contributed directly to political campaigns
Federal matching funds
Federal Election Campaign Act provides for public funding of presidential candidates. Candidates must raise at least $5,000 in individual contributions of $200 or less in each of 20 states and may then apply for federal funds to match all individual contributions of $250 or less that they receive
Federal Election Commission (FEC)
oversees campaign finance practices in the United States