After digestion and absorption, which circulatory system carries fat and fat-soluble vitamins?
The study of how food impacts health through its interaction with our genes and its subsequent effect on gene expression is called
Which of the following are substances in plant foods that are not digested in the stomach or small intestine?
A function of the large intestine is to absorb
water and minerals.
Which of the following substances is primarily involved in the absorption of fat to facilitate its digestion?
The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the National Academy of Sciences advocates that 10% to 35% of calories come from protein and ________________ from carbohydrate.
45% to 65%
The Dietary Guidelines were issued in response to
concerns regarding disease patterns in the United States.
What substances, present in fruits and vegetables, provide significant health benefits such as reducing the risk of cancer?
Viscous (soluble) fibers
can lower blood cholesterol.
The villi of the small intestine
provide an enormous surface area that facilitates absorption.
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamins?
Enable chemical processes in the body
Which large blood vessel is the first to receive most recently eaten nutrients, transporting them to the liver?
The major storage sites for glycogen are
muscles and liver.
The term "simple carbohydrates" refers to
monosaccharides and disaccharides.
Measurements of height, weight, body circumferences, and body fat are called
After absorption, galactose is converted to ________ in the liver.
What enzyme is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine?
Which of the following hormones is released during stressful times to increase blood glucose levels, making more energy available for use?
The glycemic load takes into account the glycemic index of the food and the amount of
A reasonable and recommended goal for daily dietary fiber intake is how many grams?
Medical conditions related to metabolic syndrome are
Type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke.
In which form are most dietary lipids found?
Which of the following is true about the fate of fatty acids after their absorption?
Shorter chain fatty acids of less than 12 carbons enter the blood and then the liver via the portal vein.
The major fat-digesting enzyme is
Which lipoprotein is responsible for picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources so it can be transported back to the liver for excretion?
To be transported throughout the body, fats are packaged in structures called
Which of the following is an essential fatty acid?
The chemical element found in all amino acids but not found in either carbohydrates or fats is
This is true of low quality protein sources?
It lacks one or more essential amino acids, It cannot support body growth and maintenance by itself,To adequately meet protein needs from low quality protein sources, a person would have to eat two complementary proteins.
Proteins are digested in which areas of the body?
Stomach and small intestine
What enzyme is released by the stomach to digest protein?
If the carbohydrate content of the diet is insufficient to meet the body's needs for glucose, which of the following can be converted to glucose?
What is meant by the amino acid sequence of a protein?
Order of appearance of amino acids in the protein
Kwashiorkor usually is associated with a deficiency of
What is associated with an increase in basal metabolism?
An increase in body temperature, An increase in lean body mass, Caffeine use
All of the following contribute to total energy expenditure
basal metabolic rate, thermic effect of food, adaptive thermogenesis
The more practical method for determining energy expenditure in which the amount of oxygen a person uses is measured is called
Body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields
the body mass index.
The following statements are true about trans fat
Trans fat intake can increase the risk for CVD, Creation of a trans fat solidifies an lipid that once was a liquid at room temperature by a process of hydrogenation of the oil, Trans fat increases the shelf life of food
What is true about the regulation of fluid in the body?
Antidiuretic hormone is released to force the kidney to conserve water, There is a limit to how concentrated the kidney can make the urine, Even though the kidney can effectively conserve water, insensible water losses must be replenished.
What is the role of minerals in the body?
They make possible the transfer of nerve impulses, They are constituents of important body compounds, They help maintain water balance.
Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?
Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants.
What are some of the functions of calcium?
Muscle contraction, Blood clotting, Normal nerve transmission
Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above ____ mm Hg
Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins?
After absorption, they are transported in the bloodstream to body cells and/or stored in the liver and fatty tissue.
All of the following are true statements regarding fat malabsorption
results in decreased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, increases the risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, increases the risk of developing hypovitaminosis A, rickets, or osteomalacia.
Drying of the cornea due to vitamin A deficiency is called
Dark green or orange vegetables and/or fruits are recommended at least every other day to provide a source of vitamin
All of the following are true about the toxicity of vitamin A
fetal malformation can occur, one is unlikely to get toxic doses from eating food, most adverse effects disappear after megadoses stop.
Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
Vitamin E functions as an
The nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is vitamin
Vitamins involved in red blood cell synthesis are
vitamin B12 and folate
Formation and maintenance of collagen requires
The DASH diet plan is designed specifically to reduce the risk of
Deficiency of which of the following minerals is associated with retarded growth and sexual development in children?
The conversion of glucose to lactic acid is called
anaerobic glucose breakdown
Aerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting
2 minutes to 4 hours.
Athletes who consume adequate carbohydrate promote all of the following
reducing the risk of chronic fatigue, loading the liver with adequate glycogen stores, loading the muscles with adequate glycogen stores.
involves a tapering in the intensity of workouts with a corresponding increase in the percentage of carbohydrate intake
The first trimester of pregnancy
is a time of particular importance to avoid nutritional deficiencies and insults to prevent harm to the fetus.
Extra calories for pregnancy are needed mostly during which trimester(s)?
Second and third
Popular and potentially useful nutritional interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder include all of the following
omega-3 fatty acid supplements, the gluten-free, casein-free diet, probiotics.
For a child who follows a totally vegetarian diet, all of the following nutrients are of concern