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Terms in this set (34)
Change over time
Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides. The source of all genetic diversity.
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
the process by which two or more different strains of a virus, or strains of two or more different viruses, combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two or more original strains.
A process by which point mutations in influenza virus genes cause differences in the structure of viral surface antigens. This causes year-to-year antigenic differences in strains of the influenza virus.
attach specifically to host cell receptors
cell membrane protein
Channel protein Enzymes and active transport pumps
Receptor proteins ; Transducer proteins; Structural proteins/ protect.
A membrane, derived from membranes of the host cell, that cloaks the capsid, which in turn encloses a viral genome. if they have
-induces the body to produce antibodies
-the viral capsid contains functional projections called spikes
-is a protective covering for the genome
-may contain enzymes to assist penetration
-is responsible for symmetry of virus
-is subdivided to capsomeres in some viruses
A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates a host's immune system to mount defenses against the pathogen
A system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
5 characteristics of life
energy, cells, information, replication, evolution
DNA and RNA
transcription, nucleus, genetic material
A living cell in which a virus can actively multiply or in which a virus can hide until activated by environmental stimuli
Transfer, such as of a disease, from one person to another
a bacterium, virus, or another microorganism that can cause disease. activates antigen
innate immune system
Nonspecific response; Nonspecific barriers that impede pathogens from entering the body or multiplying; Internal and external barriers
adaptive immune system
Respond to specific antigens; Responds by remembering signature molecules, called antigens, from pathogens to which the body has previously been exposed
Initial response to a specific antigen. During a primary response, T and B lymphocytes are activated and specific antibodies and memory cells to the antigen produced.
production of antibodies after a second or subsequent exposure to an antigen; faster response
Bean-shaped filters that cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body. They function as a cleanser of lymph as wells as a site of T and B cell activation
Cells manufactured in the bone marrow that create antibodies for isolating and destroying invading bacteria and viruses.
Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.
natural killer cells (NK cells)
play an important role in the killing of cancer cells and cells infected by viruses
T cells (T lymphocytes)
specialized white blood cells that receive markers in the thymus, are responsible for cellular immunity, and assist with humoral immunity
B lymphocytes that do not become plasma cells but remain dormant until reactivated by the same antigen.
A protein that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
are used during a flu outbreak less effective but can help prevent
Universal Flu Vaccine
protects for many years for all strains
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (test to detect anti-HIV antibodies)
How viruses attack cells
A virus particle attaches to a host cell. The particle releases its genetic instructions into the host cell. The injected genetic material recruits the host cell's enzymes. The enzymes make parts for more new virus particles.
An ELISA test may be used to diagnose:
HIV, which causes AIDS
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
squamous cell carcinoma
varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and shingles
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