The ways in which we establish, abide by, and enforce principles of conduct
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These are norms that generally have been written down and specify strict punishments for violatorsformal normsThese are formal norms enforced by the statelawsThis is generally understood norms but not precisely recordedinformal normsMost things that are informal norms are ____ and most things that are formal norms are _____folkways; moresThese are the guidelines for behavior that people should be followed (what ought to be- i.e. speed limit)ideal normsThese are the rules of conduct generated from people's actual behavior (what is- i.e. normal to go 5 over the speed limit)real normsthis is when norms aren't followed in all situationsbreaking normsWhy would norms be broken?1. weak norms may be ignored 2. may be violated die to norm conflict 3. acceptance subject to changeThis is a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social normsanctionsWhat are examples of positive sanctions?pay raises, medals, words of gratitudeWhat are examples of negative sanctions?fines, threats, imprisonment, stares of contemptThis is a segment of society that shares distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of the larger societysubcultureMembers of a subculture participate in ____ culture while engaging in unique and distinct forms of behaviordominantThis is specialized language used by members of a group or subcultureargotWhat does argot allow insiders to do?understand words with special meaning which sets them apart from outsidersThis is a subculture that conspicuously and deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culturecounterculturewhat are examples of countercultures?hippies and terrorist cellsthese are feelings of disorientation, uncertainty, and even fear that people experience when they encounter unfamiliar cultural practicesculture shockThis is a set of cultural beliefs and practices that legitimate existing powerful social, economic, and political interestdominant ideologyWhat does a dominant ideology explain and do?helps explain and justify who gets what and why in a way that supports and maintains the status quoHe believes a capitalist society has dominant ideology that serves interests of ruling classmarxthis is the dominant ideology works to reinforce gender stereotypes and subordinate womenfeministsThis is the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all othersethnocentrismEthnocentric value judgments serve to ______ and _____devalue groups and deny equal opportunitiesThis is viewing people's behavior from the perspective of their own culturecultural relativismWhat must be made to evaluate norms, values, and customs in light of their distinctive culture?serious and unbiased effortThis is everything humans create in establishing our relationships to nature and with each othercultureWhat does culture shape?our perception, knowledge, and understanding of the external worldWe seek to ____ and ____ culturepreserve and pass alongWhat is the "jeep wave" an example of?argotThis is the structure of relationships within which culture is created and shared through regularized patterns of social interactionsocietyThis is a common practices and beliefs shared by all societiescultural universalsWhy are there many cultural adaptations?to meet essential human needsEvery society has roughly the same things but they may look ______ from culture to culturedifferentTrue/False there are universal laws that determine human behaviorfalseWhat are some things found in most cultures?1. sports 2. cooking 3. funeral ceremonies 4. medicine 5. marriage 6. sexual restrictionsThis is the systematic study of how biology affects human social behaviorsociobiologyWhat do sociobiologists argue?our biology and genes play an important role in explaining our thoughts and actionsWhat kind of claims have been used in the past to justify inequality?how biology affects human social behaviorSome feel that an interdependent relationship exists between ____ and out _____genes; environmentWhat is an example of what sociobiologists used to believe?women were to emotional because of their organsThis is the process of introducing new ideas or objects to a cultureinnovationthis is making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of realitydiscoveryThis is a combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not exist beforeinventionThis is the process by which some aspect of culture spreads from group to group or society to societydiffusionWhat are examples of things that accelerate the diffusion and transmission of culture?mass media, the internet, immigration, and tourismMore and more cultural ____ and ____ are spreading across the bordersexpressions and practicesWhat has diffusion led to?the cultural domination of developing nations by more affluent nationsWhat are the three types of culture?1. material 2. cognitive 3. normativeThis is our physical modification of the natural environment to suit our purposesmaterial cultureThis is a form of culture in which humans modify the natural environment to meet particular wants and needstechnologyThis is a period of adjustment when nonmaterial culture is struggling to adapt to new conditions of the material culturecultural lagHow are school calendars an example of cultural lag?We have summers off because back then parents needed their kids to work on the farms in the summer. That isn't the case anymore but the calendar never changedThis is our mental and symbolic representations of realitycognitive culturethis is a system of shared symbols; includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and communicationlanguageThis is the structure and vocabulary of the language someone uses shapes his or her perception of reality and therefore his or her thoughts and actionsSapir-Whorf hypothesisThis is the use of gestures, facial expressions, and other visual images to communicatenonverbal communicationThis is the collective conceptions of what is good, desirable, and proper- or bad, undesirable, and improper- in a culturevaluesDo values change?They may, but remain relatively stable over a person's lifetimelifelong process through which people learn attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culturesocializationHumans are born extremely ____ and almost totally ____ on othersvulnerable; dependentBy interacting with others, we internalize what we need to know to ______surviveWhat happens if you miss out on early socialization?a devastating impactWho is Genie?-example of extreme childhood isolation -lived in a neighborhood and none of her neighbors knew she was there -completely kept from the outside world -kept away from mostly all human beings -never developed language -found her when she was 13 -mother was blind and the father was very controlling of her -when the mother broke free, they were able to save Genie -were able to teach her many wordsWho did the primate studies and what was it?Harlow; showed isolation had a damaging effects on monkeys (they didn't mate, the artificially pregnant monkeys became abusive mothers)Humans lack the complex instincts necessary for ______ and rely on ___ and ___ insteadsurvival; culture and socializationThis is our sense of who we are, distinct from others, and shaped by our unique social interactionsselfIs the self a static phenomenon?no, it continues to develop and change throughout our livesYou are who you are because of ______all of the social interactions throughout your whole lifeWho came of with "the looking glass self"?Cooley (one of the founders of the interactionist perspective)What is the looking glass self theory?Theory that we become who we are based on how we think others see usWhat are the three steps of the looking glass self theory?1. we imagine how others see us- relatives, friends, even strangers on the street 2. we imagine how others evaluate what we think they see- as intelligent, attractive, shy, or strange 3. we integrate both positive and negative reflections into our self we define ourselves as a result of these impressionsWhat are the two key components of the self?1. I: the acting self that exists in relation to the Me 2. Me: socialized self that plans actions and judges performances based on the standards we have learned from othersThis is the individual who is most important in the development of the self, such as a parent, friend, or teacherSignificant otherWho came up with the stages of self?MeadWhat are the three stages Mead came up with?1. preparatory stage (0-3) 2. Play stage (3-5) 3. game stage (6-9)What does the preparatory stage consist of?-children imitate the people around them, especially family members -SYMBOL: gesture, object, or word that forms the basis of human communicationWhat does the play stage consist of?-children pretend to be other people -ROLE TAKING: process of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpointwhat does the game stage consist of?-children grasp their own social positions and those of others around them -GENERALIZED OTHER: attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his or her behaviorThis is a view of social interaction in which people are seen as actors on a stage trying to put on a successful performancedramaturgical approachWho came up with the dramaturgical approach?goffmanThis is altering presentation of self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiencesimpression managementthis is the efforts people make to maintain a proper image and avoid public embarrassmentface-workThis assumes that our own culture represents what's normal and is superior to othersethnocentrismThis is the preconceived and unjustified judgment of individuals, be it positive or negative, based on their membership in a particular groupprejudiceThis is the automatic, unconscious association of value, whether positive or negative, with groups, sub-groups, or characteristics of peopleimplicit biasWhy is it important to recognize implicit bias?1. we are able to see the link between individual thoughts and cultural association 2. this bias provides a bases for prejudice and discrimination 3. we cannot address or change bias if we don't know it existsWhat are some agents of socialization?family, school, peer groups, mass media and technology, the workplace, and religion and the stateDo we all have implicit bias?yesWhy do we all have implicit bias?1. we are all social beings and are all taught (via socialization) that some groups are better than others ---this is true for those in majority groups as well as minority---This is the research orientation that looks closely at social factors that influence people throughout their liveslife course approachBiological changes help _____ but do not ____ human behaviormold; dictateThese are the processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationshipsanticipatory socializationThis is the process of discarding former behavior patters and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's lifeResocializationThis is the stressful period of self-evaluation that begins at about age 40midlife crisisThis is the generation of adults who simultaneously try to meet the competing needs of their parents and their childrensandwich generationCaring for aging parents falls disproportionately on _____women_____ is a rite of passage that typically marks a transition out of active participation in the full-time labor marketretirementWhat are the three changing roles that you go through in life?1. midlife crisis 2. sandwich generation 3. adjusting to retirementSocialization is the process sin which we _____ and ______. We learn both good and bad things through this process.internalize culture and learn to be citizens of societyWhen does socialization occur?throughout the entirety of the life course (from birth until death)People are living (longer/shorter) than ever before, both in the US and around the worldlongerThis is the study of the sociological and psychological aspects of aging and the problems of the agedgerontologyThis suggests that society and the aging individual mutually sever many of their relationshipsdisengagement theoryThis suggests that those elderly people who remain active and socially involved will have an improved quality of lifeactivity theoryThis is the prejudice and discrimination based on a person's ageageismCritics argue that neither _____ nor _____ addresses why social interaction among aging adults must change at all and point to prejudice as the answerdisengagement nor activity theoryWho enjoys a higher standard of living in the US than they did in the past?elderlyWhy do the elderly enjoy a higher standard of living?much of the improvement is due to more generous social security benefitsIncome inequality extends into ______. Cumulative advantage and disadvantage in terms of race and genderold ageUntil recently what was a taboo topic in the US?deathWho developed the 5 stages of grief?Kubler-RossWhat are the 5 stages of grief?1. denial 2. anger 3. bargaining 4. depression 5. acceptanceThis is a reciprocal exchange in which two or more people read, react, and respond to each othersocial interactionWho said, "selves can only exist in definite relationships to other selves. No hard-and-fast line can be drawn between our own selves and the selves of others."meadOur everyday interactions form the _______ of societybuilding blocksThe sociological imagination calls use to consider the intersection of ___ and ____history and biographyThis refers to the shared experiences through which people relate to one another.Social interactionWhat is reality shaped by?our perceptions, evaluations, and definitionsAn ongoing process of constructing the material, cognitive, and normative culture that we come to share collectivelysocial construction of realityWe create the society through our actions and at the same time, become products of the society we constructsocial construction of realityWhat is the three step model for social constructionism?1. constructing culture 2. constructing the self 3. constructing societyThe more culture is shared with others, the more _______ it becomes to changeresistantWhy do things have meaning?because we say they have meaningWho created the three step model for social constructionism?Berger and LuckmannThis is the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationshipssocial structureOccupying social structure positions shapes how we _____ and what _____ we have access tothing and act; resourcesWhat is social structure composed of?statuses, social roles, groups, social networks, and social institutionsThese are the social positions we occupy relative to othersstatusCan a person hold more than one status simutaneously?yesWhat are the 3 types of statuses?ascribed, achieved, masterWhat is the ascribed status?social positions assigned to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristicsWhat is achieved status?social position that is within our power to changeWhat is a master status?status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position in societyThis is the set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or statussocial roleWhat is a significant component of social structure?social roleThis is a situation that occurs when incompatible expectations arise form two or more social statuses held by the same personrole conflictThis is the difficulty that arises when a single social status imposes conflicting demands and expectationsrole strainThis is the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one's self-identity in order to establish a new role and identityrole exitWhat is the difference between role conflict and role strain?role conflict involves two or more statuses and role strain is only one statusis role exit always a negative thing?no, one day you'll graduate from college and no longer be a student which is a good thingWhat happens when there are repeated forms of behavior?they solidify into formal and informal norms or become institutionalized in the form of laws. The resulting predictability allows us to know what to do most of the timeWhat are the building blocks of society?social interactionsReality is _______socially constructedThis is the way in which society is organized into predictable structureWhat are some of the predictable relationships that society is organized into?statuses, social roles, groups, networks, and institutionsThis is two or more people, united by a shared sense of identity or purpose, who interact with one another on a regular basisgroupThis plays a vital part in society's social structure.groupsWhat are the two types of groups?primary and secondaryThis is a small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperationprimaryThis is a formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understandingsecondary groupThis is a group or category to which people feel they belongin-groupThis is a group or category to which people feel they do not belongOut-GroupThis is any group where individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behaviorreference groupWhat does a reference group do?1. serve a normative function by setting and enforcing standards of conduct and belief 2. perform comparison function by serving as standard against which people can measure themselves and othersThis is a series of social relationships that link individuals directly to others, and through them indirectly to still more peoplesocial networksAre social networks intentional?yes, some are intentional and public, but others have unintentional and unexpected linksThis is our tendency to establish close social networks with characteristicshomophilyWhat does homophily lead to?the creation of dense clusters of similar people in social networks_________ categorizes network relationships from strong to weak.GranovetterHow does Granovetter categorize network relationships?from STRONG to WEAKWhat does "the strength of weak ties" argue?that weak ties often connect use to people in denser clustersWhat makes good matchmakers for new employers and romantic partners?"the strength of weak ties"This is the integrated and persistent social networks dedicated to meeting society's core needssocial institutionsMajor institutions serve as key elements to __________the larger social structureHow we _____ within each institution contributes to social orderorganize social interactionWhat helps us to better understand social order?focusing on functions of institutionsThe structure of institutions can reinforce ______inequalityWhat helps us to understand why we think and act the way we do?studying everyday interactions within institutionsWhy did sociology arise?it arose as a discipline in order to better understand and direct the transition from traditional to modern societyWhat were Ferdinand Tonnies views?He viewed the city as a dramatic change from the ideal of a close-knit community in his native Germany (Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft)This is the close-knit community, often found in rural areas, in which strong personal bonds unite membersGemeinschaftThis is community, often urban, that is large and impersonal with little commitment to the group or consensus on valuesGesellschaftWhat was Durkheim interested in?Transition to modern societyThis is the social cohesion based on shared experiences, knowledge, and skills in which things function more or less the way they always have, with minimal division of laborMechanical solidarityThis is social cohesion based on mutual interdependence in the context of an extreme division of laborOrganic solidarityWhat was Lenski's beliefs?He believed society's level of technology is critical to the way it is organized. New social forms arise as technology changesThese are people who rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available in order to surviveHunting-and-Gathering SocietiesThese are people who plant seeds and crops rather than merely subsist on available foodshorticultural societiesThese members engaged primarily in the production of food, by they increase their crop yields through technological innovations such as the plow, allowing for some speciationAgrarian societiesThis society depends on mechanization to produce4 its goods and servicesindustrial societyWhat is the industrial society reliant on?new inventions and energy sourcesWhat happens to the individuals, villages, and regions in an industrial society?they become interdependentWhat emerges in the industrial society and why?education emerges as a social institution distinct from family due to need for specialized knowledgeThis is the economic system engaged primarily in the processing and control of informationpostindustrial societyWhat is the main output of postindustrial societies?services rather than manufactured goodsDifferential access to resources has _______hidden consequencesPostindustrial society was a ________creation of new identityThis was a technologically sophisticated, pluralistic, interconnected, globalized societypostmodern societyWhat were the three preindustrial societies?1. hunting-and-gathering 2. horticultural 3. agrarianMembers of these societies hold different, often competing, sets of norms and valuesstoriesTheir reality is constrained by the images they constructimagesthey pick and choose their realitychoicesthey are globally linked into a vast, interrelated social, cultural, political, and economic systemnetworksWhat are the 4 postmodern societies?stories, images, choices, and networksThis is a formal organization built upon the principle of maximum efficiency.bureaucracyWho saw bureaucracy as the most rational form of management for the modern ageMax WeberWho described the 5 core characteristics of bureaucracy?WeberWhat are the 5 core characteristics of bureaucracy?1. division of labor 2. hierarchy of authority 3. written rules and regulations 4. impersonality 5. employment based on qualificationsThis is the abstract model of essential characteristics of a phenomenon, such as Weber's model of bureaucracy.ideal typeThis is when the specialized experts perform specific tasks to increase efficiencydivision of laborThis is the loss of control over our creative human capacity to produce, separation from the products we make, and isolation from our fellow producers; a potential consequence of division of laboralienationWhat is "silos"?Two very distinct parts of the organization that have no communication with each other. (One office does one thing knows nothing about what the people are doing two doors down.)Each position is under the supervision of a higher authorityhierarchy of authorityoffer employees clear standardswritten rules and regulationsnorms dictate that officials perform their duties without giving personal consideration to people as individualsimpersonalitywritten personnel policies dictate who gets promoted, and people often have a right to appeal if they believe that particular rules have been violated. Such procedures protect workers against arbitrary dismissalemployment based on technical qualificationsThis is a process by which a group, organization, or social movement increasingly relies on technical-rational decision making in the pursuit of efficiencybureaucratizationThis is the process by which the principles of efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control shape organization and decision making in the US and around the worldMcDonaldizationWho predicted that those parts of the self deemed not necessary to the job, such as emotional needs and family responsibilities, would be dismissed as irrelevantWeberThis is the principle that all organizations, even democratic ones, tend to develop into a bureaucracy ruled by an elite fewIron Law of OligarchyLeaders have a vested interest to ________hold on to powerActions that violate the core principles of bureaucracy can _____seep inThis is an example of the ones who look out for their self-interests, rather than honoring the ideological commitments they made to get electedWashington Insiders