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AP Human Geography Unit 2 Section 2
Terms in this set (29)
The Demographic Transition Model
It is a model consisting of five stages that helps to explain the rising and falling of natural increase over time in a country.
Crude birth rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in society.
Crude death rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in society.
Natural increase rate (NIR)
The percentage by which a population grows in a year.
Total fertility rate (TFR)
Defined as the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (15-49).
The amount of time required for the quantity to double in size or value.
Infant mortality rate (IFR)
Defined as the annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births
If birth rates fall, the population will continue to increase for a while, as children who are already born will grow up and replace smaller generations before them.
Zero population growth (ZPG)
A condition of demographic balance where the number of people in a specific population neither grows nor declines.
Growth that occurs then declines, modeled after growth rates as countries move through the DTM.
The Epidemiologic Transition Model
Focusing on distinct health threats in each stage of the demographic transition.
Policies that discourage population growth and birth rates to increase, like China's One Child Policy
Policies that encourage population growth and birth rates to increase, like Russia National Sex Day.
What occurs in stage 1 of the demographic transition and what is an example of a country in that stage?
There are very high birth and death rates so there is no virtually long-term natural increase. There are no countries in stage one.
What occurs in stage 2 of the demographic transition and what is an example of a country in that stage?
The death rates are rapidly declining and the birth rates are very high which leads to a high natural increase rate. Sub-Saharan Africa and Ghana are good examples.
What occurs in stage 3 of the demographic transition and what is an example of a country in that stage?
The birth rates and the death rates are continuing to decline, but the birth rates are falling faster than the death rates, so the natural increase rates are still positive, but decreasing from their height in stage 2. Brazil is a good example.
What occurs in stage 4 of the demographic transition and what is an example of a country in that stage?
There are very low birth and death rates which produce no virtually long-term natural increase rate. The United States of America and Canada are good examples.
What occurs in stage 5 of the demographic transition and what is an example of a country in that stage?
The birth rates continue to fall and the death rates uptick slightly due to an aging population leading to a negative natural increase rate
How have crude birth rates fallen over time and which strategies appear to be the most effective?
Women have had access to better educations and contraceptions that control the age they get married, the amount of children they have, and the increase the ages in which they have the children. Also, they have better access to healthcare.
What were the ideas of Thomas Malthus and what were his ideas about population growth? Were they right? Why do some people think his ideas have merit?
He believed that eventually, the population would increase and there would not be enough food being produced for everyone to be able to survive. They are not right at the moment but they could become true in the future. People still believe that there is only a certain amount of land that humans are able to make arable.
How do you calculate the natural increase rate (NIR)?
What is the spatial distribution of countries with high CBR, NIR, and IMR?
They are located in less developed areas such as countries in Africa.
What is the highest cause of death at stage 1 of the Epidemiological Transition Model (ETM)?
Pestilence and famine (high CDR). There are infectious and parasitic diseases. Ex. black plague (bubonic plague).
What is the highest cause of death at stage 2 of the Epidemiological Transition Model (ETM)?
Receding pandemic (rapidly declining CDR). There is improved medicine, nutrition, and sanitation. Ex. cholera in London in the mid nineteenth century.
What is a pandemic?
A disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high percentage of the population.
What is the highest cause of death at stage 3 of the Epidemiological Transition Model (ETM)?
Degenerative diseases (moderately declining CDR). Chronic diseases associated with aging and a decrease in deaths from infectious diseases. Ex. cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
What is the highest cause of death at stage 4 of the Epidemiological Transition Model (ETM)?
Delayed degenerative diseases (low but increasing CDR). Deaths caused by cardiovascular diseases and cancer delayed because of modern medicine treatments.
What is the highest cause of death at stage 5 of the Epidemiological Transition Model (ETM)?
The reasons for stage 5 are evolution, poverty, and increased connections. Diseases can evolve and establish a resistant to drugs. Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics. There are more diseases in poorer areas because of the presence of unsanitary conditions and inability to afford medicine. Advancements in transportation and globalization make it easier for an individual in one infected country to travel to other countries and spread diseases; even when they are not showing symptoms yet.
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