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Reproductive system

It is necessary for the testes to be kept below body temperature.
The prostate atrophies as a man ages, and it usually causes no health problems.
The hormone oxytocin combines with enzymes in semen to enhance sperm motility.
When a couple is having difficulty conceiving a child, it is necessary to investigate the sperm of the male.
The amount of testosterone and sperm produced by the testes is dependent on the influence of FSH alone.
Ovarian follicles contain mature eggs.
Sexually transmitted diseases are the most important cause of reproductive disorders.
Reproduction is not possible in males or females until one year after puberty has begun.
Males do not go through menopause as females do, but there is a steady reduction in their testosterone levels.
Pain during ovulation is called dysmenorrhea.
A human egg or sperm contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.
The Pap smear is a test to detect cancerous changes in cells of the cervix.
The adenohypophyseal hormone that triggers ovulation is estrogen.
The female hormone corresponding to the male ICSH is FSH.
The male urethra serves the urinary system only.
Both tetrads and crossovers are seen during meiosis.
Failure to attain erection is called impotence.
Ovulation occurs near the end of the ovarian cycle.
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone only.
Female orgasm is required for conception.
The first sign of puberty in females is budding breasts.
The primary function of the testes is to produce testosterone.
The stage in meiosis where chromosomal exchange takes place is telophase.
The diamond-shaped area between the anus and clitoris in the female is the vulva.
The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the endometrium.
A scrotal muscle that contracts in response to cold environmental temperature is the cremaster.
The secretions of the bulbourethral glands neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra and serve as a lubricant during sexual intercourse.
The zona pellucida is formed as the follicle becomes a secondary follicle.
The molecule that enhances the ability of testosterone to promote spermatogenesis is inhibin.
The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play?
A) They contract to push sperm along the ductus deferens.
B) They regulate the temperature of the testes.
C) They are responsible for penile erection.
D) They contract to allow ejaculation.
The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to ________.
A) gravity
B) peristaltic contractions
C) enzymatic activity
D) hormonal action
The ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of ________.
A) detumescence
B) the dartos muscle
C) luteinizing hormone
D) the bulbospongiosus muscles
The most important risk for testicular cancer in young males is ________.
A) smoking
B) a diet high in fat
C) nondescent of the testes
D) sexually transmitted diseases
Which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?
A) the seminal vesicles
B) the bulbourethral glands
C) the prostate
D) the pituitary
Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?
D) testosterone
Development of male reproductive structures depends on which of the following events?
A) that the female hormones are suppressed during pregnancy
B) the suppression of inhibin
C) secretion of male hormones prenatally and lasting into the first few months after birth
D) that human gonadotropin be synthesized in the first week of the pregnancy
The primary function of the uterus is to ________.
A) protect the ovaries
B) synthesize female hormones
C) regulate the ovarian and menstrual cycles
D) receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum
The corpus luteum is ________.
A) the ruptured follicle following the ejection of an oocyte from the ovary
B) the ovarian ligament that anchors the ovary medially to the uterus
C) the mesovarium
D) part of the uterine tube
The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called ________.
A) the Graafian follicles
B) the fallopian tubes
C) the infundibula
D) the fimbriae
Which of the following constitutes the female counterpart of the male scrotum?
A) the clitoris
B) the greater vestibular glands
C) the labia majora
D) the mons pubis
Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________.
A) about the same number of each is produced per month
B) they have the same degree of motility
C) they have the same number of chromosomes
D) they are about the same size
The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ________.
A) mitosis
B) meiosis
C) cytokinesis
D) DNA synthesis
Fertilization generally occurs in the ________.
A) ovary
B) uterus
C) vagina
D) fallopian tubes
Spermiogenesis involves ________.
A) the formation of four haploid cells from a spermatogonium
B) the movement of sperm in the female genital tract
C) the formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm
D) the sequence of events in the rete testis
All of the following can be considered male secondary sex characteristics except the ________.
A) development of body hair
B) lowering of the voice
C) development of testes as opposed to ovaries
D) increasing mass of the skeleton
In humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ________.
A) dizygotic
B) identical
C) fraternal
D) of different sexes
Characteristics of the mature sperm include ________.
A) the presence of two X chromosomes in approximately half the sperm
B) the presence of Y chromosomes in approximately half the sperm
C) the absence of an acrosome
D) the absence of coiled mitochondria
Functions of testosterone include ________.
A) facilitation of muscle and skeletal growth in mass
B) loss of facial hair
C) growth of the breasts
D) drying of the skin
Effects of estrogen include ________.
A) increased oiliness of the skin
B) deepening of the voice
C) growth of the breasts at puberty
D) growth of the larynx
Secretion of progesterone stimulates ________.
A) contraction of uterine muscles
B) preparation of the mammary glands for lactation
C) secretory activity of the uterine myometrium
D) development of the female secondary sex characteristics
Which of the following statements about sperm is not true?
A) They contain very little cytoplasm or stored nutrients.
B) They are sluggish in an alkaline environment.
C) The acrosome is produced by the Golgi apparatus and contains hydrolytic enzymes.
D) The sperm midpiece consists of Golgi bodies spiraled tightly around the contractile filaments of the tail.
The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________.
A) spermatocytes
B) spermatogonia
C) sustentacular cells
D) interstitial cells
The testicular cells that construct the blood-testis barrier are the ________.
A) spermatocytes
B) spermatogonia
C) sustentacular cells
D) interstitial cells
Which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes?
A) Male sex hormones will not be circulated in the body.
B) Sperm will have no means of exit from the body.
C) Inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced.
D) Inadequate blood supply will retard the development of the testes.
Erection of the penis results from ________.
A) a sympathetic reflex
B) parasympathetic activation of the bulbourethral glands
C) dilation of the veins in the penis
D) a spinal reflex mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system
Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?
A) cervical mucus becomes thin and crystalline
B) ovulation
C) corpus luteum
D) development of endometrial cells
Select the correct statement about the testis.
A) The testis is surrounded by the tunica vaginalis.
B) Each lobule of the testis contains 4-8 tightly coiled seminiferous tubules.
C) The interstitial cells are responsible for sperm cell maturation and also form the blood-testis barrier.
D) The Sertoli cells secrete testosterone.
Select the correct statement about male sexual response.
A) Sympathetic impulses are responsible for causing penile arteriolar dilation, resulting in erection.
B) Erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood.
C) Expansion of the penile tissues results in dilation of the venous outflow.
D) Ejaculation is the result of parasympathetic stimulation.
The ovaries ________.
A) are surrounded by the tunica albuginea
B) are anchored to the uterus by the suspensory ligament
C) are anchored to the body wall by the ovarian ligament
D) contain a germinal epithelium from which the gametes arise
Select the correct statement about mammary glands.
A) Mammary glands are modified sebaceous glands.
B) They have functional, milk-producing, simple alveolar glands.
C) The breasts of most nonpregnant females are composed of fat and connective tissue.
D) The pigmented area around the nipple is called the perineum.
During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.
A) LH reaches its highest levels
B) progesterone levels are at their highest
C) estrogen reaches its highest levels
D) the Graafian follicle forms
Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.
A) The menstrual phase of the cycle is from day 1 to day 8.
B) During the secretory phase, estrogen levels are at their highest.
C) During the proliferative phase, levels of progesterone rise as the follicle begins to produce more hormone.
D) If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.
What mechanism divides the testes into lobules?
A) interstitial spaces
B) seminiferous tubules
C) the ductus deferens
D) septal extensions of the tunica albuginea
Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females?
A) Both sexes are equally prone to breast cancer.
B) All lumps identified in breast tissue are malignant.
C) The only time hormones target breast tissue is during pregnancy and lactation.
D) The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.
Normally menstruation occurs when ________.
A) blood levels of FSH fall off
B) blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
C) blood levels of estrogen and progesterone increase
D) the corpus luteum secretes estrogen
The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ________.
A) during spermatogenesis two more polar bodies are produced
B) the mature ovum is n, while the sperm is 2n
C) in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell
D) spermatogenesis involves mitosis and meiosis, but oogenesis involves meiosis only
Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. One came from an unequal division of the ovum, but from where did the other two arise?
A) There were originally four polar bodies and one disappeared.
B) One is an undeveloped primary oocyte that failed to mature.
C) The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies.
D) What you really see are two polar bodies and the sperm that will fertilize the egg.
Which of the following will occur after ovulation?
A) The corpus luteum secretes estrogen only.
B) The endometrium enters its secretory phase.
C) The secretion of anterior pituitary gonadotropins is enhanced.
D) The corpus luteum prepares to become a corpus albicans.
The seminal vesicles ________.
A) produce a yellowish fluid rich in fructose
B) produce about 90% of the volume of semen
C) encircle the upper part of the urethra
D) attach at the base of the penis
Spermatogenesis ________.
A) is the process of releasing mature sperm cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule
B) involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes
C) results in the formation of diploid cells
D) uses mitosis to produce gamete cells
The gubernaculum ________.
A) is the part of the parietal peritoneum that will become the tunica vaginalis
B) will become the spermatic cord
C) is a cord that will guide the descent of the testes
D) will become the ductus deferens
The brain-testicular axis ________.
A) is the tight relationship between the cortex and the control of testicular function
B) involves FSH and LH release
C) involves posterior pituitary release of regulating hormones
D) involves a positive feedback loop control of spermatogenesis
Select the correct statement about testosterone control.
A) GnRh from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.
B) FSH stimulates testicular production of testosterone.
C) Inhibin and testosterone exert positive feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary.
D) The pineal gland is believed to be the gland that exerts the most influence in testosterone control.
Which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?
A) The ampulla is the narrow constricted region.
B) The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary.
C) The isthmus is the normal site of fertilization.
D) The mesometrium supports the uterine tubes along their entire length.
Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.
A) Rising levels of estrogen start follicle development.
B) High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.
C) The follicle begins to secrete progesterone in response to estrogen stimulation.
D) The LH surge stimulates further development of the secondary oocyte.
Which of these statements about sexually transmitted diseases is false?
A) Chlamydia is caused by bacteria that can bring on a wide variety of nonfatal but uncomfortable symptoms.
B) Gonorrhea is caused by a bacteria that can bring on very painful discharges.
C) Syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated.
D) Genital herpes is caused by a virus that may lead to cervical cancer.
Which of the following statements about spermatogenesis is not true?
A) The spermatogonium forms the primary spermatocyte.
B) The primary spermatocyte forms two secondary spermatocytes.
C) The secondary spermatocytes each form two spermatids.
D) Each spermatid forms two sperm.
A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ________.
A) be sterile
B) not develop secondary sex characteristics
C) be impotent (unable to have an erection)
D) have impaired function of interstitial cells
Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?
A) Fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tube.
B) Ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses.
C) Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.
D) The monthly discharge of the uterus (menses) is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones.
A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________.
A) decreased testosterone secretion
B) excessive beard growth
C) increased spermatogenesis
D) shrinkage of the anterior pituitary gland
All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except ________.
A) FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium
B) Estrogen is secreted by the developing follicle in the follicular phase of the cycle
C) The corpus luteum is formed from the ruptured follicle after ovulation
D) A decrease in the levels of ovarian hormones signals menstruation
Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously?
A) maximal LH secretion and menstruation
B) maximal steroid secretion by the corpus luteum and menstruation
C) early follicular development and the secretory phase in the uterus
D) regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion
The duct system of the male reproductive system includes ________.
A) the epididymis, a tightly coiled tube about 6 inches long
B) the urethra, which is divided into four anatomical areas
C) the ductus deferens, a duct that runs from the epididymis up into the pelvic cavity
D) the corpus spongiosum
An ovulating oocyte is actually activated by hormones about ________ days before ovulation.
A) 14
B) 28
C) 85
D) 110
Prostate cancer is _______.
A) the number one cause of death in men
B) sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient
C) most common in Asians
D) often the result of a distortion of the urethra