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Pharmacology and Physiology
Terms in this set (23)
Chemical and electrical stimuli are recieved by dendrites and leave through the terminal bulb. Action potential is created. Neurons transfer info at synpases.
Brain and Spinal Cord. Neurons connect the dinstinct areas of the brain together. Recieves info, processes it and relays it back to PNS for appropriate response
Sensory neurons consisting of the Somatic and Autonomic Branch. The Autonomic branch is further divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic. Provide CNS with info, and act out commands of CNS.
Breed or feed. From cranial or sacral (bottom) of spinal cord.
Fight or flight. From thoracic and lumbar sections (middle)
How drugs affect chemical and cellular processes. Usually binds to regulatory molecules.
Absorption of drug, distribution of drug in the body, and elimination of drug from the body.
Sensitivity and interaction between the drug and its target.
Drug that mimics endogenous response
Drug that distrupts normal endogenous response.
Example of Agonist
Endorphine is pain reliever that binds at brain. Morphine, from the poppy, binds to same receptor and elicits same response, so it's an agonist.
Chemicals that relay, amplify and modulate signals between cells. Synthesized in response to action potentials, and are formed in presynaptic neurons. Bind to receptors, and affect cell uptake and degradation.
Produce Acetylcholine (ACh). Formed in all autonomic preganglionic neurons, and some postganglionic. Acts on nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
Producle and release catecholamines like norepinephrine, dopamine, etc. Acts on Alpha and Beta adrenergic receptors, dopamine receptors, etc.
Salvia divinorum. Compound is salvinorin A. Is an opioid receport agonist, and is a diterpene. Interacts with kappa opioid receptor to reduce pain and create hallucinogenic effects. Only non-nitrogenous kappa opioid receptor agonist. Presence of kappa opioid antagonist will reduce the effects of Salvinorin A.
Pain reduction by binding w/ both exogenous and endogenous opioids.
Plants and Neurotransmitter Action
Many compounds affect acetylcholine function in humans. They can mimic or inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nicotiana tabacum) or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (Atropa belladonna)
Nicotinic ACh Receptor
Receptor is NA+ channel (sodium). Channel opens once bound to ACh, and an AP is initiated. An agonist (Nicotine) binds to the receptor, activates and then desensitizes the nAchR. Antagonists (Alpha tubocurarine) prevent the nAchR from opening at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle paralysis.
Rauwolfia serpentina. The compound is reserpine, which treats hypertension. Also has sedative and antipsychotic effects.
Amine compounds derived from tyrosine that act as neurotransmitters and hormones. Enyzmes package the compounds into vesicles, creating catecholamines. Released in tissue specific manner from adrenergic neurons.
Blocks transport proteins that normally package biogenic amines into cellular vesicles. Cells can't continue production of dopamine into norepinephrine. Other synthesized molecules are degraded by enzymes. Thus, the amount of dopamines and catecholamines available to be released by neurons is reduced. Happens at adrenergic nerve terminal.
Physiological Effects of Reserpine
Sedative (depletion of neurotransmitters from PNS), lowers blood pressure/relaxes heart (depletion of neurotransmitters from CNS). Extreme neurotransmitter degradation leads to depression and Parkinson's like tumors (PD's associated with lack of dopamine in the brain).
Normal actions of the nervous system can be modulated by:
Change in global neurotransmitter action (affect CNS/PNS synapses)
Compete with endogenous ligands for cellular receptor sites (either antagonist or agonist action)
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