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Microbiology Lecture Quiz 2 Material
Notes from pages 7-12. Mott BIOL 156 S. Lall
Terms in this set (38)
Microbes that are naturally found in and on the body. Also referred to as natural flora, or normal biota
What is the number of microbes are in and on the body in comparison to cells?
More than 10X
The majority of natural flora is non-pathogenic or pathogenic?
Non-pathogenic, but opportunistic
What are some factors that can influence numbers of normal flora?
Age, gender, hygiene, stress, drugs (antibiotics), genetics, nutrition, and environment
Sterile or not sterile: the uterus and its content during embryonic and fetal development
Sterile, until just before birth
What bacterium is found in the GI tract of breastfed infants and is non-pathogenic and produces products that protects infants from pathogens?
Bifidobacterium, which favors the oligopolysaccharides in breast milk
What sites on the body are free of microbes (sterile)?
All internal tissues and organs, fluid within organs or tissue
When microbes travel from sites they are found on the body to a new site, what is the result?
Disease; e.g. E. coli from the GI tract introduced into the eye results in conjunctivitis (pink eye)
Occurs when normal flora is introduced to a site that was previously sterile
Infectious agent (microbe) originates outside the body
What are the benefits of normal flora?
Normal intestinal development, nutritional source of vitamins, stimulation of the immune system, provides antagonistic response to pathogens
Animals bred and born via c-section in a sterile environment that have no natural flora in or on them
Which microbe produces vitamin K?
Preparation of live microbes used as a preventative or therapeutic measure to displace or compete with potential pathogens i.e. active cultures in yogurt
A non-digestible food product that is taken to enhance the growth of beneficial microbes in the body i.e oligopolysaccharides in breast milk, fiber
Non-path, found in yogurt, oral/GI/vaginal flora, produces acid as it grows, acidophile
Pathogenic opportunistic yeast, Oral/GI/Vaginal flora, neutrophile, causes Candidiasis
What do you treat candidiasis with?
Anti-fungal drugs like Flagyl
What in high levels protects the body from Candidiasis?
How does the use of antibiotics affect the levels of Lactobacillus and Candida?
antibiotic + v Lactobacillus => v acid => ^pH => ^Candida = disease
What are the most common ways Candidiasis occurs?
1. Antibiotic induced
2. Immune deficiency
3. Direct physical contact with a carrier (sexual)
Infected individual with a pathogen but does not have any signs/symptoms of the disease. Subclinical infection.
How is C. diff different from E. coli?
It is harder to kill as it contains endospores
nonpathogenic, faculative anaerobe (grows with or without O2), normal flora in GI tract (enteric), produces bacterocins as it grows
What do bacteriocins prevent?
Clostridium difficle (C. diff)
pathogenic (enteric), endospores, anaerobic, produces toxins as it grows (binary fission), GI tract and can result in ulceration and perforation of the intestinal wall
What kills vegetative cells of C. diff during cell growth?
Which drug prevents endospore germination?
What is the last resort therapy for C. diff?
Bacteriotherapy (fecal replacement therapy) and probiotic
What are areas contaminated with C. diff disinfected with?
Sporicidal agents i.e. bleach
What are the methods that kill endospores?
Bleach, autoclave, fire, ionizing radiation
What is the cell cycle of C. diff?
Endospore > Germination > Vegetative cell > Sporulation (creates new endospore) > Reproduction via binary fission
Theory of Spontaneous Generation
Theory that life can arise spontaneously from nonliving matter; not accepted
Theory of Biogenesis
Theory that life arises from preexisitng life; accepted
Germ Theory of Disease
Microbe are the cause of some disease; accepted
Product is heated to a temperature high enough to kill the most heat resistant pathogen. Nonpathogens can still survive the process.
UHT (ultra high temperature)
A sterilization process commonly used on coffee creamer and canned food
Which step of cell reproduction does Vancomycin prevent?
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