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American History II - Unit 11: The American Empire
Terms in this set (39)
a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
the application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
"White Man's Burden"
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized by imposing their civilization on the inhabitants of their colonies.
journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy
Spanish-American War (1898)
conflict between the U.S. and Spain after the release of the DeLome Letter and the destruction of the U.S.S Maine that began the rise of the U.S. as a world power. The U.S. gained possession of Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines as a result.
Battle of Manila Bay (1898)
defeat of the Spanish Pacific fleet by the U.S. Navy, resulting in the fall of the Philippines and contributing to the final U.S. victory in the Spanish-American War
Battle of San Juan Hill (1898)
fought in Cuba involving Roosevelt's "Rough Riders" that was an American victory that allowed the Spanish forces to be defeated.
volunteer regiment of U.S. Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Treaty of Paris 1898
the treaty that concluded the Spanish American War after six months of hostilitiy. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philipines. Cuba was freed from Spain.
Open Door Policy
statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China that reaffirmed the principle that ALL countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.
sphere of influence
a foreign region or area in which a nation has power to control trade and other economic activities although it has no formal authority.
Philippine-American War (1899-1902)
armed conflict between the Philippines and the United States from 1899-1902* as a continuation of the Philippine struggle for independence started before and during the Spanish-American War becoming a savage conflict with guerilla warfare.
objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them.
Platt Amendment (1901)
an amendment added to Cuba's constitution by the Cuba government under pressure from the United States; it provided that Cuba couldn't make treaties that compromised its independence or do many things without U.S. approval.
A country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power. ex. Cuba's relationship with the U.S. after the Spanish-American War.
Insular Cases (1901)
set up to determine whether or not the newly-acquired lands would be afforded the same rights as Americans; decided that the Constitution and Bill of Rights did not necessarily extend to include the islands.
"Big Stick Diplomacy"
diplomatic policy developed by T. Roosevelt where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.
a ship canal 40 miles long across Panama built by the United States from 1904-1914 connecting the Atlantic (Caribbean Sea) and Pacific Oceans shorting the trip by 8,000 miles.
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force.
Foreign policy under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Foreign policy under President Wilson's idea of the United States' moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American government that was viewed as hostile to American interests.
Trench Warfare/No Man's Land
a type of combat in which opposing troops fight from defensive trenches facing each other protected by barbed wire the land in between two trenches was called no mans land.
people opposed to the use of war or violence to settle disputes
was a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The unrestricted submarine warfare caused the U.S. to enter World War I against the Germans.
Zimmerman Note (1917)
Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile
Selective Service Act of 1917
law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
War Industries Board (WIB)
an agency established during World War I to increase efficiency and discourage waste in war-related industries
sold by the US government to the American people to raise money for the war effort.
Espionage and Sedition Acts 1917-1918
crime to utter false statements that interfere with the military, as well as publish and send mail materials advocating treason, insurrection, or resistance
Schenck v. US (1919)
Unanimously upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 which declared that people who interfered with the war effort were subject to imprisonment; declared that the 1st Amendment right to freedom of speech was not absolute; free speech could be limited if its exercise presented a "clear and present danger."
a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
The war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations.
League of Nations (1919)
A world organization of national governments proposed by President Woodrow Wilson and established by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. It worked to facilitate peaceful international cooperation.
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
ended World War I; it was much harder on Germany than Wilson wanted but not as punitive as France and England desired. It was harsh enough, however, to set stage for Hitler's rise to power in Germany in the 1930s.
intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas
Palmer Raids, 1919-1920
in raids led by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, the U.S. government searched for political radicals and deported foreign born political activists.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
the branch of the Department of Justice responsible for investigating violations of federal law.
national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
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